Looking for Friedrich Frerking and Caroline Dickenhorst Frerking passenger list

I am searching for information on Friedrich Frerking's wife, Caroline Dickenhorst, born 1809 in Germany. I am seeking her relationship to brothers Fred and Hermann Dickenhorst.

My guess is that Caroline Dickenhorst Frerking may be an older sister to Freiderich Wilhelm and Hermann Heinrich Dickenhorst, born 1812 and 1818 respectively in Spenge, and emigrating 1847 and 1851, both ending up in Concordia, MO along with the Frerkings. I do have a baptism record for a Dickenhorst sister born in what I thought to be November 1810, and I thought her name was Catherine Maria, but the writing is hard to decipher so perhaps I misinterpreted the name, and I did not interpret the year designation correctly. I am trying to determine if this is the Caroline in Concordia in 1840s-1870s, or if Caroline is another relative. On the positive side, this was the only child for the family for whom I had not found any subsequent records. However, on the negative side, this baptism date for Catherine does not match the known birthdate for Caroline -- St. Paul Church records, Concordia, MO: "Caroline was born 01 May 1809 and died 06 Apr 1878. Caroline is buried in the old section (1A) of the St. Paul ’s Lutheran Cemetery, Concordia. Her tombstone is inscribed “FRERKING, Caroline, Ehefrau von Friedrich Frerking, born May 1, 1809, died April 6, 1878”. Also on the negative side is the 85 mile distance of Esperke from Spenge. (For comparison, Wallenbruck (where the Grungras family was from) is 2.5 miles from Spenge.)

The Friedrich Frerkings are known to have arrived in Concordia (Lafayette County, MO) by 1840. Their daughter Charlotte is known to have been born in MO in 1843, plus, Friedrich has purchased the first of four lands from the U. S. Government tin 1843 -- 5/1/1843 contract; the others being on 11/1/1848, 4/1/1850, and 5/15/1852. However, there are also two Missouri land contracts, apparently dated in March and June of 1840.

Robert W. Frizzell states in his "Independent Immigrants: a settlement of Hanoverian Germans in western Missouri" book that "June 4, 1840, brought Friedrich Frerking, who patented 120 acres of land near his uncle Friedrich Dierking and near the others from Esperke and County Neustadt. Three months earlier, he had also patented forty acres of land nine miles to the north in Middleton Township. Dierking, too, patented land there, but nether immigrant held his Middleton Township land for more than a few years. These land entries are the earliest records to come to light concerning Frerking after his unaughorized departure from the Hanoverian army three years earlier. According to Hanoverian governmnet records, he emigrated at the time of his desertion. His wife and son apparently came to America in 1839. Several of Frerking's siblings are known to have worked in St. Louis before coming to Lafayette County, and it can be surmised that he did the same. Many young men from Hanover and Westfalia who wanted to farm but arrived in St. Louis with little money worked there for wages for a time before moving into the countryside as farmers."

They are not found on any 1840 census. It is difficult to find non-land-owners, as this is the last of the non-detailed census forms. The only person specifically enumerated is the head of the household, with counts of the males and females by age ranges. Thus, if Friedrich and Caroline were living with relatives, an uncle or a sibling, they would have been counted under that person's name -- so to try to find them, one must look for all their relatives and look to see if there is a household with three extra persons of the right age/sex. There is no Frerking listing at all in America in 1840, and only one Dierking -- Frederick W. Dierking in Lafayette, but this household does not include Friedrich and Caroline Frerking -- the Dierking household census has 1 male 15-20, 1 male 40-60, 2 females 5-10 and 1 female 10-15.

The Dierking emigration party, and those who followed it, built a substanial Hanoverian settelement in southeastern Lafayette County. Gert Gobel described it in the 1860s as a "starke deutsche Niederlassung" -- a strong German settlement. The process of building the settlement began slowly and gained momentum graduatlly. When Frederick W. Dierking patented his 880 acres of land in Novmeber 1838, he was described in the application as a resident of St. Louis County. Since at that time the City of St. Louis was still within St. Louis County, the Dierkings were probably living in the city. They may well have stayed there for the winter, moving to Lafayette County only in the spring of 1839

Several other Hanoverians patented land near Dierking that year. Perhaps the most illusive is [Dierking's uncle] Christian Lehne, who entered forty acres at the Land Office in Lexington on April 25, 1839. ... As the decade of the 1840s dawned, the settlement may have consisted of no more than the eight households mentioned above -- Dierking, Lehne, Oetting, Niemeyer, Bruns, Franke, Liever and Thiemann."

While there was an 1840 census for Dierking in Lafayette, there is none for Christian Lehne, Frederich Rabe, Christian Oetting, Friedrich Niemeyer, Heinrich Franke (~19), Christian Liever or Friedrich Thiemann, anywhere in America, much less Missouri. But there is one in Lafayette for Henry Bruns with 10 people in his household and one in St. Louis for a Christian Frank with 6 people (probably not a match). This means the Frerkings were mistranscribed (the name is so butchered that the common guesses do not find it); they are living with others (indeed, some houses in St. Louis had 16 men ages 20-30 in them); or they are in transit from St. Louis to Lafayette, and are missed on the census in both places. And, since the 1837 list below came through New York, it is possible they are not in St. Louis at all, but traveling overland from a landing that may have been in New York (there is a Christian Lehn in NY, which does not appear to be a match, and is a single household anyway).

1850 for Henry Frank, 29, Mary 24, and 3 children 1-5 in Lafayette, MO (on same page with Friedrich and Caroline Frerking) -- Clearly he is not found on the 1840 census as he was a single man of 19, probably living with others
(others to be filled in)

In addition, no passenger list for Friedrich and Caroline Frerking (and their son Friedrich) has been found. It is not even known if Friedrich emigrated first, alone or with siblings, followed by his wife and child -- Caroline Dickenhorst Frerking (b.1809), her husband Johann "Friedrich" Frerking (b. 1812), and their son Friedrich (b. 1838).

From Gary Pape: "Friedrich and Caroline Frerking immigrated to the US. To my knowledge, no one has found any passenger list with their names. See my posting Friedrich Frerking Immigration Puzzle for a little more information. He does not appear to be one of the first group of Frerking boys that came over on the 1837 Burmah voyage. Georg “Wilhelm” Frerking, Sophie Dankenbring’s last husband, was on that early voyage (Durking in the passenger list). The last of the Frerking family came over on the 1845 Gen Washington voyage. However, according to the Lafayette Co. records, Friedrich purchased land in the Concordia area by 05 Jun 1840, so he and (and probably Caroline) had arrived sometime before then. Their oldest son Fritz (born in Esperke, Hanover in 1837) declared in the 1900 and 1910 census records that he came over about 1839/40. Their second child Charlotte was born in Concordia on 17 Feb 1843. So Caroline was at least in Concordia by then."

Also emigrating to America at some time are Johann's family: brother George Wilhelm (1814) and wife Wilhelmine (1815), brother George Heinrich (1816) and wife Charlotte Louise (1819), brother Otto Georg (1821), sister Sophie Charlotte (1823), brother Adolph (1825), sister Maria Christine (1826), brother Dietrich August (1828), brother Dietrich Eduard (1830), sister Doris Friedericke (1833), and also their mother Dorothea Maria (b. 1792). There were several other Frerking families in Esperke too, and several of them emigrated as well, confusing the matter immensely. Some of these were found on a 1845 passenger list below.

"The Frerkings of Esperke illustrate well the difficulties in confidently tracing Hanoverian villagers of this era. In 1839, in Esperke alone, four of the thirty-nine different FReihestelle, or households that were official members of the community, were occupied by Frerkings; one was a Vollmeier, one a large cottager, another a small cottager, and the last a Brinksitzer. In November 1840, there were also three different houslings named Frerking, two of whom were probably heads of family. Moreover, two of the four Frerking proprietors were named Johann Dietrich Frerking. One was the father of Friedrich Frerking noted above and twelve other children. He had been born Nobember 19, 1786, the son of the cottager Heinrich Ludwig Frerking, and was married in 1811. The other Johann Dietrich Frerking was the son of the Vollmeier Jurgen Heinrich Frerking; this Johann Dietrich was born October 2, 1795, and was married in 1822. Despite these difficulties and the need to carefully evaluate all sources, even those created by Hanoverian officials at the time, reasonable confidence can be obtained by comparing multiple sources."

Clearly, more research is needed to find Friedrich and Caroline Dickenhorst Frerking. The "window" for emigration dates depend on whether they emigrated together or separately:
Separately: November 1837-March 1840 for Friedrich; August 1838-May 1842 for Caroline
Together: August 1838-March 1840
These dates revolve around the three key facts of an August 1838 birth in Germany of their son, the March 1840 land purchase in Missouri, and the February 1843 birth of a daughter in Missouri. The five-year gap between the birth of the first and second child (1838-1843) suggests that they may have emigrated separately, but would also be explained by children who died.

Dickenhorst is an unusual name, with only this one Dickenhorst family found in all of America, there must be a connection between the Caroline Dickenhorst of Esperke and the Dickenhorsts of Spenge, 85 miles away who both happen to end up in the tiny town of Concordia, MO.

Friedrick Frerking arrives in New York October 5, 1836

1836 Frerking passenger list on Copernicus, Bremen to New York
Bremen to New York
Arriving October 5, 1836
Ship Copernicus

Friedrick Frerking, 26 years 9 months, male, farmer
Anna, 20 years 0 months, female

June 20, 1837 Frike Frerking to New York

1837 Frerking passenger list on Defender, Bremen to New York
Bremen to New York
Arriving June 20, 1837
Ship Defender

Frike Frerking, 21, woman

September 29, 1837 Frerking passenger list

Some Frerkings are said to have immigrated in 1837, from Hamburg to NY. From Gary Pape:

The book "Independent Immigrants" by Robert Frizzell opens with an account of 25 year old Friedrich Frerking deserting the Hanoverian army in the spring of 1837 and departing for the U.S. (presumably at that time). According to Esperke church records, Friedrich was born Jan. 15, 1812 and christened Johann Friderich Ludewig. He married Caroline Dieckenhorst in Germany and had a son Friedrich (Fritz) who was born Aug. 12, 1837 in Esperke. (That, coincidentally, is the same date that the ship Burmah left Hamburg with some of the original settlers of Concordia.) According to a March 1916 Concordian article, Friedrich, Jr. is said to have come to America with his parents when he was three years old. In both the 1900 and 1910 censuses, Fritz stated that he immigrated to the US in 1839 (i.e. when he would have been two years old).

The 1837 Burmah passenger list [see below] includes three or four of Friedrich’s younger brothers (listed as Durking because they traveled with their uncle Friedrich Dierking). But there is no Johann or Friedrich age 25 listed. One of the names is Henry “Durking” with an age of 25. Friedrich had a brother Juergen Heinrich who was born Feb. 10, 1813. Since the voyage was Aug-Sept of 1837, age 25 might possibly have applied to either of them. Although Fritz claimed to have come to the US with his parents (plural), he was too young at that time to have known if both were on the same ship. Could Friedrich Sr. have left his pregnant wife or new-born son behind when he emigrated from Germany?"

1837 Durking passenger list on Burmah, Hamburg to New York
Passenger list information: Arrival Date: 29 Sep 1837; Port of Arrival: New York; Port of Departure: Hamburg, Germany; Place of Origin: Hanover; Destination: Missouri; Ship: Ship Burmah; Microfilm Serial Number: M237; Microfilm Roll Number: 35; List Number: 840

---Fred. W. Durking, farmer, 38 (birth ~1799)
---Anna M. Durking, 40 (birth ~1797)
---Fred. Durking, 11 (birth ~1823)
---Christ Durking, 10 (birth ~1826)
---Dorathy Durking, 7 (birth ~1830)
---Charlotte Durking, 5 (birth ~1833)
---Fred. Durking, 1 (birth ~1836)
(the following are thought to actually be Frerkings)
---Henry Durking, shoemaker, 25 (birth ~1812)
---William Durking, farmer, 22 (birth ~1815) -- thought to be Georg Wilhelm Frerking, b.1814
---Lewis Durking, shoemaker, 17 (birth ~1820)
---Adolph Durking, farmer, 12 (birth ~1825)-- thought to be Adolph Frerking, b.1825

But it is not certain if all of these latter listings are Frerkings, i.e., specifically if Lewis Durking is Otto Georg Frerking b.1821 and Henry is Johann Friedrich Frerking b.1812. Also, this would mean that neither Friedrich's wife Caroline and son Friedrich, nor Georg's wife Wilhelmine emigrated at the same time.

January 9, 1841 Frerkings to New Orleans

1841 Frerking passenger list on Alwina, Bremen to New Orleans
Bremen to New Orleans
Arriving January 9, 1841
Ship Alwina

Joh. H. Frerking, Esperke, Landman, 42
Cath. Dorothea, 39
Fried Wilh W, 8
John H, 6
George Dierking, Esperke, Shoemaker, 32
Maria, 30
Doroth, 10
Hein, 6
Wilhelm, 3
Wilhel Heimmans, 23

October 7, 1842 George Frerking to New York

1842 Frerking passenger list on Pauline, Bremen to New York
Bremen to New York
Arriving October 7, 1842
Ship Pauline

Georg L. Frerking, 30 years 1 month, farmer, from Hannover to New York

George Frerking declaration

Name: George Frerking
Year: 1846
Age: 31
Estimated birth year: abt 1815
Place: Missouri
Source Publication Code: 1492
Primary Immigrant: Frerking, George
Annotation: Copied and indexed by Janice Fox, D.A. Griffith, R.R. Henrick, and others. Title varies, compilers vary. Gives names, ages, countries of origin, dates of declared intention, and references in court records.
Source Bibliography: DECLARATIONS OF INTENTION TO BECOME AN AMERICAN CITIZEN, 1838-1849, FOUND IN THE CIRCUIT COURT OF THE CITY OF ST. LOUIS, MISSOURI. In St. Louis Genealogical Society Quarterly. A-BEL, vol. 3:1 (Mar. 1970), pp. 16-19; BEM-DOL, vol. 3:2 (June 1970), pp. 32-35; DOL-FUR, vol. 3:3 (Sept. 1970), pp. 60-61; GAB-HEIT, vol 3:4 (Dec. 1970), pp. 77-78. Page: 61

December 23, 1844 Frerking to New Orleans

1844 Frerking passenger list on Astracan, Bremen to New Orleans
Bremen to New Orleans
Arriving December 23, 1844
Ship Astracan

Note: this is a ship that has other immigrants on it for Concordia, specifically, Henry Dankenbring, Friedrich Heidorn -- they live for five years in St. Louis, but move to Concordia in 1849. There was a speical story written just about this particular crossing by a Dittmer descendant -- http://haygenealogy.com/dankenbring/ships/astracandiary.html

Charlotte Frerking, age 21, Female, no occupation

(This list unfortunately does not detail specific town in Germany, so it is unknown who traveled with Charlotte; she is the only Frerking, but the Klingemann family is listed above her and the Dammann family below.)

1845 Frerking Voyage on the sailing ship General Washington
Arrives in New Orleans from Bremen, November 24, 1845

1845 Frerking passenger list on General Washington, Bremen to New Orleans

The Frerking passengers on the list, and the match to the names and ages from other records are as follows:
George H. Frerking - 28 (Georg Heinrich, 29)
Louise Frerking - 26 (his wife Charlotte Louise, 26)
Doroth - 54 (his mother Dorothea Maria 53)
Aug - 18 (his brother Dietrich August 16)
Died - 16 (his brother Dietrich Eduard 15)
Maria - 19 (his sister Maria Christine 18)
Friedke - 12 (his sister Doris Friedericke 12)
(#234 skipped)
Marie - 55 -- unknown
Soph - 32 -- unknown
Friedr - 27 -- unknown
Charl - 24 -- unknown
Caroline - 17 -- unknown
Sophie - 8 -- unknown
Fried - 6 -- unknown

This is Frieder's mother, and five of his 11 siblings. The other Frerking relatives are unknown, and it should be noted that the list apparently contains an error as the sequential numbering skips 234 prior to the 55 year old Marie.

Also on the list, just above the Frerking entries are Died and Maria Duensing from Esperke, Died and Dorothy and Ludwig and Heinr Ehlers from Esperke, and Fried Wegener from Esperke. These families also move to Concordia, Lafayette, MO.

December 15, 1851 Frerking to New Orleans

1851 Frerking passenger list on Peter Godfrey, Bremen to New Orleans
Bremen to New Orleans
Arriving December 15, 1851
Ship Peter Godfrey

L. Frerking, 28, male, laborer, from Hannover

December 23, 1856 Frerking to New Orleans

1856 Frerking passenger list on Jeverland, Bremen to New Orleans
Bremen to New Orleans
Arriving December 23, 1856
Ship Jeverland

Marie D. Frerking, 40, (notation) her husband in St. Louis
her child, Ernst A L Frerking, 14

1857 Frerking to New York

Name: Ludwig Frerking
Year: 1857
Age: 24
Estimated birth year: abt 1833
Place: New York, New York
Source Publication Code: 1133.13
Primary Immigrant: Frerking, Ludwig
Annotation: Date and port of arrival. Extracted from National Archives microfilm series M237, reel 145, item 1247 (Agnes from Bremen), reel 153, item 544 (Anna Delano from Bremen), reel 179, item 1173 (Adonis from Bremen), reel 179, item 1174 (Agnes from Bremen), and Source Bibliography: CASSADY, MICHAEL. "List of Ship Passengers Going to Illinois." In Illinois State Genealogical Society Quarterly, vol. 24:2 (Summer 1992), pp. 104-109. Page: 109

Name: Heinrich Frerking
Year: 1857
Age: 22
Estimated birth year: abt 1835
Place: New York, New York
Source Publication Code: 1133.13
Primary Immigrant: Frerking, Heinrich
Annotation: Date and port of arrival. Extracted from National Archives microfilm series M237, reel 145, item 1247 (Agnes from Bremen), reel 153, item 544 (Anna Delano from Bremen), reel 179, item 1173 (Adonis from Bremen), reel 179, item 1174 (Agnes from Bremen), and Source Bibliography: CASSADY, MICHAEL. "List of Ship Passengers Going to Illinois." In Illinois State Genealogical Society Quarterly, vol. 24:2 (Summer 1992), pp. 104-109. Page: 109

no list supplied.

August 14, 1860 Frerking to New York

1860 Frerking passenger list on Stella, Bremen to New York
Bremen to New Orleans
Arriving August 14, 1860
Ship Stella

Wilhelm Frerking, 55, male, carpenter, Hannover, to Illinois
Dorothea Frerking, 45?, female, wife
Louise Frerking, 19?, female, daughter
Heinrich Frerking, 17?, male, son

There is also an overview of some of the reasons why our ancestors emigrated, a list of the sources used in data collection and summaries, and a summary of the history of Germany in the middle of the 19th century.