THE HISTORY OF BUCKS COUNTY, PENNSYLVANIA, CHAPTER XXIV, PLUMSTEAD, 1725. from the discovery of the Delaware to the present time by W. W. H. Davis, A.M., 1876 and 1905* editions..

Contributed for use in the USGenWeb Archives by Donna Bluemink. dbluemink@cox.net

Transcriber's note: Liberty has been taken with numbering footnotes so as to include all footnotes from both the 1876 and 1905 editions, plus any additional text and pictures in the 1905 edition. All 1905 material will be noted with an asterisk.

Note: Where names differ, the 1905 edition spelling is applied.



History of Hilltown Township, Bucks County, PA

CHAPTER XXII

HILLTOWN

1722

The line of English settlers. -Welsh and Germans appear. -First township organized north of Buckingham. -Israel Pemberton. -Rev'd William Thomas. -He builds a church. -His will. -John Vastine. -Change of the name. -The Funks.* -The Owens. -Land taken up. -Henry Lewis. -The Morrises. -Mathias.* -William Lunn. -Township organized. -The inhabitants meet. -Origin of township's name. -Jacob Appenzeller. -John Williams.* -The Beringers.* -Michael Snyder.* -Hilltown Baptist Church. -St. Peter's Church. -German Lutherans and Reformed. -Rev. Jacob Senn.* -Rev. Abrm. Berky.* -Villages. -Line Lexington, etc. -Roads. Bethlehem Road, old and new. -Population. -Surface of township. -Coal oil pipe line.*

A line, drawn across the county at the point we have now reached in the organization of the townships, will about make the limit of country settled by English Friends. On the Delaware side they reached a little higher up, and peopled the lower parts of Plumstead, while toward Montgomery they fell short of it in Warwick and Warrington. Thus far the tidal wave of colonization had rolled up steadily from the Delaware, and township after township was formed as required by the wants of the population. But now we observe a different mode, as it were, in peopling the wilderness of central Bucks county. The immigrants came in through Philadelphia, now Montgomery, county, and were generally Welsh Baptists and German Lutherans and Reformed. A few English settlers planted themselves in the extreme northwest and northeast corners of the county, and a few other points, but the old current of immigration was apparently turned aside by the new movement that flanked it on the southwest. We have now to write about new races, with manners and customs and religious belief very different from the followers of William Penn. In the course of time the Germans spread themselves across the country to the Delaware, and upward to the Lehigh, while the Welsh, fewer in numbers and more conservative in action, confined their settlements to two or three townships on the southestern border.

In this section of the county, we mean north of Buckingham, and extending nearly to the present northern limits of the county, were located three large land grants, that required subsequent legislation. These were the tracts belonging to the "Free Society of Traders," and the manors of Richlands and Perkasie. The first, containing nearly nine thousand acres, extended northwest from Buckingham, and embraced portions of Doylestown, Warwick and New Britain townships. The conveyance was made to the company by Penn before he left England in 1682, and it was surveyed to them before 1700. The manor of Richlands, which contained ten thousand acres, a reservation to the Penn family, lay mostly in the present township of Richland, and was laid out in 1703, while that of Perkasie contained the same number of acres, and embraced parts of Rockhill and Hilltown. According to Oldmixon, it was surveyed soon after 1700. A more extended account of these grants will be found in a subsequent chapter. With these exceptions, all the land of the region we are about to treat of was subject to private entry and purchase.

Hilltown was the first township formed north of Buckingham. Settlers were here early in the last century, but it is impossible to tell when, and by whom, the wilderness was first penetrated. As was the case elsewhere, the first purchasers generally took up large tracts, and were not settlers. Among these we find Israel Pemberton, an original land-owner in Hilltown. The commission- ers of property conveyed to him two thousand acres on the 1st of October, 1716, [October 31, 1716*] in two contiguous tracts, which he sold to James Logan, September 26, 1723, and two days afterward Logan conveyed three hundred acres, in the central part of the township, to Reverend William Thomas, for 90 pounds. Mr. Thomas was one of the fathers of Hilltown, and one of the most reputable men who settled it. He was born in 1678, and came to America between 1702 and 1712. Missing the vessel in which he had taken passage, he lost all his goods, and was landed at Philadelphia with his wife and one son, penniless. He first went to Radnor township, Delaware county, where he followed his trade, a cooper, and preached for a few years, when he removed to Hilltown, where he probably settled before 1720. He became a conspicuous character, and influential, acquired a large landed estate, and settled each of his five sons and two daughters on a fine farm as they married. In 1737 he built what is known as the Lower meeting house, on a lot of four acres given by himself, where he preached to his death, in 1757. The pulpit was a large hollow poplar tree, raised on a platform, and in time of danger from the Indians he carried his gun and ammunition to church with him, and deposited them at the foot of the pulpit before he ascended to preach. In his will Mr. Thomas left the meeting house, and the grounds belong- ing, to the inhabitants of Hilltown. This sturdy sectarian excluded "Papists," "Hereticks," and "Moravians" from all rights in the meeting house and grounds, and "no tolerated minister," Baptist, Presbyterian, or other, was allowed to preach there who shall not believe in the Nicene creed, or the Westminster Confession of Faith, or "who will not swear allegiance to a Protestant king." His children married into the families of Bates, Williams, James, Evans, Days and Morris. Rebecca, the daughter of John, the second son of William Thomas, was the grandmother of [the late *] John B. Pugh, of Doylestown. The blood of William Thomas flows in the veins of several thousand persons in this and ad- joining states. The following inscription was placed on the tombstone of William Thomas in the old Hilltown church:

"In yonder meeting-house I spent my breath;
Now silent mouldering, here I lie in death;
These silent lips shall wake, and you declare,
A dread Amen, to truths I published there."

Richard Thomas, in no wise related or connected with the Reverend William, was among the early settlers in Hilltown. His sons turned out badly. Two of them entered the British army during the Revolution, William known as "Captain Bill Thomas," and Evan the second son. The latter accepted a commission and raised a troop of horse. He made several incursions into the county, with which he was well acquainted, and was with the British at the Crooked Billet May 1, 1778, where he is charged with assisting to burn our wounded in buck- wheat straw. He went to Nova Scotia at the close of the war, but subsequently returned to Hilltown and took his family to his new home. There he was a black sheep, in a political sense, in the Jones family. Edward Jones, a man of capacity and enterprise, served first in the American army, but discouraged by defeat and disaster, he raised a troop of cavalry among his tory friends and neighbors and joined the British at Philadelphia. His farm near Leidytown was confiscated. In 1744, Thomas Jones purchased three hundred and twenty- seven and one-half acres of Lawrence Growden's executor for 327 pounds 10s, which he settled and improved.

John Vastine, by which name he is known, a descendant of Dutch ancestors, arrived about the time of William Thomas. Before 1690, Abraham Van de Woestyne immigrated from Holland to New York, with his three children, John, Catherine and Hannah. In 1698 we find them at Germantown, where they owned real estate, and the two daughters joined the Society of Friends. About 1720 John sold his land at Germantown and removed to Hilltown, where he bought a considerable tract of Jeremiah Langhorne. His quaint dwelling, long since town down, with gable to the road, stood on the Bethlehem pike, about two miles northwest of Line Lexington and four from Sellersville. His name is found on nearly all the original petitions for opening roads in Hilltown, and on that addressed to the court at Bristol, dated March 8, 1724, from the inhabitants of "Perchichi,"(1) asking that the draft of Hilltown may be recorded, where his name is spelled Van de Woestyne. He died in 1738. The names of three of his children are known, Abraham, Jeremiah and Benjamin. The latter joined the Friends, and in 1730 applied to the Gwynedd monthly meeting for permission to hold meetings in his house. Abigail Vastine, granddaughter of John, the founder of the family, and a woman of great personal beauty, which she inherited from her Holland ancestors, married Andrew Armstrong. John Vastine has numerous descendants in Chester, Northumberland, and other counties in this state, and in Kentucky and some of the Western states.

There is, perhaps, no more curious circumstance connected with the history of names in this State than that relating to this family. The original name was Van de Woestyne, which, in the course of time, by a gradual change in the orthography, became Wostyne, Voshne, Vashtine, and Vastine, as now spelled. The original settler was oftener called "Wilderness" than by any other name, which many supposed was given him because he had pushed his way among the first into the woods. At that day the Dutch and Germans were somewhat in the habit of translating their patronymics into English, and accordingly "Van de Woestyne" became "of the wilderness." After this the orthography has not much improved, for we find it written Wilderness, Van de Wilderness, etc., etc. Gradually the original name was abandoned altogether, and Vastine adopted in its stead.

The Funks, of Bucks county and several other states of the Union, are descended from Henry Funk, an immigrant from the Palatinate, 1719, settled at Indian Creek, Montgomery Co. He married Anna, daughter of Christian Meyers; was the father of ten children, John, Henry, Christian, Abraham, Esther, Barbara, Anne, Mary, Fronecka and Elizabeth; built the first mill on Indian Creek, and well educated for the time, became a Bishop in the Moravian Church, dying 1760. His eldest son, John, settled near the present Blooming Glen, Hilltown, married, and was a prosperous farmer, and was the grandfather of Henry and Isaac Funk, New Britain. Another descendant, David Funk, married Catharine Godshalk, removed to Westmoreland Co., and became a Mennonite minis- ter. Henry, the second son of Bishop Funk, dismissed from the Mennonite Church for supporting the Colonies in the Revolution, became a preacher among the Funkites, and migrated to Rockingham Co., Va., 1786, with his family, whence they spread over the Southern and Western States. One of the sons was a noted musician and publisher of music. Christian Funk, third son of John, born 1731, and died 1811, and eldest son of Henry, the immigrant, also dismissed from the Mennonite Church for supporting the Colonies, joined the Funkites. Some of his descendents became prominent, among them the late Charles Hunsicker, Norristown; Dr. A. H. Fetterolf, LL.D., President Girard College; and S. M. Ashenfelter, Colorado Springs. Abraham Funk, fourth son of John, born 1734, died 1788, married May Landis, settled in Springfield on 300 acres and farmed and milled. He was impressed with his team during the Revolution, and witnessed the battle of Brandywine. Two of his daughters married into the Stover family. He was a member of Assembly, 1808-09. Abraham Funk was the grandfather of Henry S. Funk, Springtown. Among his descendants is Samuel F. Geil, a distinguished lawyer, Colorado.

The Owen family,(2) Welsh, were among the earliest immigrants to this state and county, and some members of it became prominent in colonial days. Griffith Owen was a member of the colonial council from 1685 to 1707, John Owen was sheriff of Chester county in 1729-30-31; Owen Owen was coroner of Philadelphia in 1730, and sheriff of that city and county in 1728. Our Bucks county Griffith Owen is believed to have come from Wales in 1721, with a letter to the Mont- gomery church, and bought from four to six hundred acres in Hilltown, just west of Leidytown, [and built a home on it, 1727, *] where the old dwelling was recently torn down [which was torn down many years ago. He was Captain of the Associators, and served in Col. Alexander Graydon's regiment in the French and Indian war. Griffith Owen died October 18, 1764 at 70. *] He was in the Assembly eleven years, first appearing in 1749. As he followed the business of surveying and was a good clerk, he must have been a man of more than ordinary cultivation for the period. He married Margaret Morgan, probably of New Brit- ain, and had four children, Owen, Ebenezer, Levi and Rachel. Owen married Catharine Jones, and had four sons and four daughters, Abel, Griffith, Edward, Owen, Margaret, Sarah, Mary and Elizabeth. The eldest son, Owen Owen, jr., was a man of active, vigorous mind, of influence in his day, and lived to the age of ninety. He married Jane Hughes, daughter of Christopher Hughes of Bedminster, and had eight daughters, Catharine, Elizabeth, Ann, Jane, Mary, Margaret, Zillah and Hannah. John O. James, of Philadelphia, is the son of Catharine Owen, the eldest daughter, who married Abel H. James. Between William Thomas's three hundred acres, bought of James Logan, and Griffith Owen, a settler named Buskirk took up a large tract, and the Shannon family took up land west of Owen.

The land in Hilltown was mostly taken up by 1720, and was chiefly owned by James Logan, Jeremiah Langhorne, Henry Paxson, probably of Solebury, William Thomas, James Lewis, who died in 1729, John Johnson, Evan Evans, Thomas Morris, Evan Griffith, Lewis Lewis, Bernard Young, John Kelley, Lewis Thomas and Margaret Jones, who died in 1727. A Margaret Jones died in Hilltown in 1807, at the age of ninety-five, probably her daughter, leaving one hundred and fifteen living descendants, of whom sixty were in the third and eleven in the fourth generation. These landowners were probably all residents of the township except Logan, Langhorne and Paxson. The manor of Perkasie occupied from a half to one-third of Hilltown. This section of the country was better known by the name of Perkasie than by any other down to the time it was organized into town- ships, and was designated Upper and Lower Perkasie, the former referring to what is now Rockhill. The major part of the settlers were Welsh Baptists, and co- workers with William Thomas.

Henry Lewis, a Welshman, was settled in Hilltown, probably as early as 1730. He is said to have been a political offender against the British government, and "left his country for his country's good." He bought about three hundred acres lying on either side of the Bethlehem turnpike, a mile from Line Lexington, also an hundred acres a mile west of Doylestown, near Vauxtown, and the same quantity at Whitehallville [now Chalfont *] which covered the site of the tavern property and extended up the west branch of the Neshaminy. He married Margaret, daughter of William James. His son Isaac Lewis, born in 1743, a soldier of the Revolu- tion, was shot through the leg on Long Island while setting fire to some wheat- stacks that had fallen into possession of the British, and his comrades rescued him with great difficulty. He was with the army at Valley Forge, and from there was sent to Reading, probably as an invalid, whence he was brought home by his parents. Jefferson Lewis, the grandson of Henry, an intelligent old gentleman, a school-teacher for many years, lives [lived *] on the ancestral property. He has [had *] in his possession the veritable old Welsh Bible, that was brought over by his ancestor, in which is written "Henry Lewis, 1729," and a record of his children. Several families of Lewises settled in Hilltown, but were not all related to each other. Jeremiah purchased land in the northern part of the township. James Lewis was there early, but removed with his family to Virginia before the Revolution. The Lewises living in this township and adjoining parts of Montgomery are principally the descendants of Henry. In the early days of these Welsh settlements Edward Eaton, probably a step-son of Jeremiah Lewis, was the only man among them honored with the title of "Doctor," but his knowledge of the healing art was as limited as his practice. Moses Aaron, the ancestor of the Aaron family, settled near the New Britain line a mile east of Line Lexington, between 1725 and 1730, where he bought a farm, improved it, and raised a family of children.

The Mathias family were early settlers in Hilltown, and the descendants are numerous. The American ancestor was John Mathias, born in Pembrokeshire, Wales, 1675; immigrated 1722-23, with a second wife, Elizabeth, daughter of Thomas Morgan, and a family of young children, and with other Welshmen; settled in Franconia township, now Montgomery county, near the Bucks line, about where Souderton stands. The locality took the name of Welshtown. John Mathias mar- ried a third wife about 1740, a widow, and died, 1748. Among his children were, Mary, born in Wales, Griffith, 1727, Thomas, 1730, Mathias, 1732, John, 1734, and David, 1737. The Mathias homestead was in Hilltown, a mile west of Dublin, near the Bethlehem road; the dwelling, a Colonial house, is still standing, unless torn down recently, and well preserved. It was built at two periods, the Eastern end bearing date, 1750, the Western, 1768. The late Rev'd Joseph Mathias, the most distinguished member of the family, in the past, was a grand- son of John, the immigrant, and the youngest son of Thomas by a second wife. He was born May 8, 1778, baptised September 29, 1799, ordained to the ministry Jul 22, 1806, and died March 11, 1851, in his seventy-third year. During his pastoral life he attended upwards of seven hundred funerals and preached six thousand eight hundred and seventy-five sermons. The children of John Mathias intermarried with the families of Griffith, Jones, Thomas, and Pugh, and among the descendants of John Mathias was Mathias Morris, a prominent member of the Bucks county bar, member of the State Senate and of Congess. The widow of Joseph Mathias died 1870, at the age of ninety-three. The Houghs, New Britain, connected with the Mathiases by marriage, were descended from Richard, whose son Joseph married Elizabeth West. Her parents were early settlers in Warwick, and she was a sister of Joseph Mathias's grandmother on the maternal side. Joseph and Elizabeth Hough had sons Richard, Joseph, and John and seven dau- ghters. The late General Joseph Hough, Point Pleasant was a descendant of Joseph the elder.

The Morrises were English Friends, who arrived shortly after William Penn, and settled in Byberry. It is not known at what time they came into this country, but Thomas Morris was in Hilltown before 1722, and some of the family were in New Britain as early as 1735, and probably earlier. Morris Morris, a son of Cadwallader, and grandson of the first immigrant, married Gwently, daughter of the Reverend William Thomas, from which union come the Morrises of this county. They had nine children. Benjamin, the third son, became quite celebrated as a manufacturer of clocks, and occasionally one of the old- fashioned, two-story affairs of his make, with the letters "B. M." engraved on a brass plate on the face, is met with. He was the father of Enos Morris, who learned his father's trade, but afterward studied law with Judge Ross, at Easton, and was admitted to the bar about 1800. He was a leading member of the Baptist church, and a man of great integrity of character. Benjamin Morris, sheriff of the county nearly half a century ago, was a brother of Enos. Enoch Morris, next younger than Benjamin, had a son James, who fell into the hands of the Algerines, and was one of those liberated by Commodore Decatur. He married a Miss Hebon, of Philadelphia, and settled at Cincinnati, and one of their sons graduated at West Point.

William Lunn, from England, was an early settler, whose son Joseph married Alice, the daughter of Lewis Evans. The latter was an unwilling immigrant. He was on ship-board bidding good-bye to friends about to embark for America, when the vessel sailed, and he was obliged to accompany her. William and Alice Lunn had nine children, who married into the families of Jones, Griffith, Brittain, Vastine, Thomas, and Mathew. Joseph, the third son, was killed in 1770, by being thrown from his wagon and run over in Germantown, on his return from market. William, the second son, joined the British army while it occupied Philadelphia, in 1778, and never returned home. William Bryan was a purchaser of real estate in Hilltown in 1743, probably the same who settled in Spring- field.

Hilltown was laid out and organized into a township in the fall of 1722. The inhabitants held several meetings on the subject, and there does not appear to have been entire unanimity among them. In the summer of that year a meeting "of several inhabitants of Perkasie" was called at the house of Evan Griffith to petition the court for a road to Richard Michael's(3) mill. The question of a new township was evidently on their minds, for in a note at the bottom of the petition they say: "We agree that our township should be called 'Aberystruth,' unless it be any offense to our justis Lanorn."(4) Twelve names are signed to the petition, embracing most of those already mentioned as among the earliest settlers. On the 3d of August the inhabitants of Perkasie held another meeting to consider the matter of being erected into a township. They drew up and signed a petition to the court, in which they state, that having heard the inhabitants of that section are to be organized into a township with the "Society(5) and Muscamickan," they protest against it. They express a wish to be formed into a township by themselves, "to begin at the Long Eiland lind and run it along with the county line to Parkyowman."(6) They further state that they had lately fixed upon a place to "make a school-house" upon Perkasie, probably the first school-house in the township. The petition, signed by eleven of the inhabitants, was carried to Bristol by Evan Griffith, a long journey through the woods in that day.

We have no record of any further action being taken by the inhabitants in the matter of a township, nevertheless it was ordered and laid out that year. The only draft we have been able to get sight of, and which probably accompan- ied the return of the surveyor, gives it the shape of a parallelogram, except an offset of eighty perches, with the angles all right, and it contains the names of all the land-owners except Jeremiah Lewis. It has been thought the township was named after William Hill, who was mayor of Philadelphia in 1710, speaker of the Assembly in 1715, and a judge of the Supreme Court in 1726. It was called "Hill township" in 1725.(7) It is probable, however, that it was called "Hilltown" because of the rolling and hilly nature of its surface.(8) The present area is fourteen thousand five hundred and twenty acres. It is well-watered by the tributaries of the north-east branch of the Perkiomen, and some of the branches of the Neshaminy. The soil is fertile, and agriculture the only interest that receives particular attention. In 1759 two thousand five hundred acres of the manor of Perkasie, lying in Rockhill and Hilltown, were given by the Proprietary to the University of Pennsylvania, on condition that it should never be alienated.

We have met with but little success in getting reliable accounts of the German families of Hilltown, which race now forms a large part of the popula- tion. About 1735 Jacob Appenzeller, an immigrant from Switzerland, settled in the township. He married into the Oberholtzer family, and lived on the farm owned by the late Elias Hartzell, forty-five years, and died about 1780. He had two sons, Henry and Jacob. The former is supposed to have joined the British army in the Revolutionary war, as he was never afterward heard of, while Jacob married into the Savacool family, and remained in Hilltown. He had two sons and one daughter, Henry, Jacob, and Elizabeth. Henry settled in Greene county, in this state, and Jacob married Elizabeth Ulp, had three children, and died in 1863, at the age of eighty-one. Gideon Appenzeller, of Hilltown, is the young- est son. Elizabeth, the daughter of Jacob, married George Miller, of Rockhill, where she now [1876] lives.

John Williams, thought to be a descendant of Roger Williams, Rhode Island, settled in Hilltown prior to 1740, and was a member of the Baptist church. His farm, partly in New Britain, was northwest of New Galena. His son William, was educated at Brown University, graduating in the first class, 1769, at the age of twenty-one. He was born, 1748, died 1823, and was pastor of a Baptist church at Wrentham, Massachusetts, for forty-eight years. The father died about 1786, intestate. The son William, preached at New Britain at one time, but was not the settled pastor. The daughter, Rebecca, married William James. The other children of John Williams were: Sarah, Isaac, and Elizabeth. The Rev. William Williams had a famous debate with David Evans, a noted Universalist, at New Britain church. The descendants are living at Providence, Rhode Island.

The Beringers of Hilltown are descended from Nicholas Beringer, a German immigrant, the date of whose arrival is not known. The 26th of June, 1777, he bought of John Penn one hundred and forty acres in the manor of Perkasie, marked No. 10 on the plat, for 350 pounds, charged with an annual rent of an ear of corn, to be paid on the 24th of June. It is probable he was in the township before this time. Nicholas Beringer was the great-grandfather of Amos Beringer, a resident of Hilltown. Michael Snyder bought one hundred and thirty-six acres in the manor, plat No. 12 of the plan, June 19th, the same year, probably the first of the name who settled there.

In Hilltown are four churches, two Baptist, one union, Lutheran and Re- formed, and one Mennonite. We have already spoken of one Baptist church, that built by the Reverend William Thomas, and known as the Lower meeting-house, where he leaned his rifle against the hollow log that served as pulpit, before he began to preach. The second of this denomination, called Hilltown Baptist church, was constituted in 1781 with fifty-four members, although service was held there several years before. It was the off-shoot of the Montgomery church, the parent of Baptist churches in this section of Montgomery and Bucks, and until regularly constituted the members went thither to take communion. The first pastor was John, the second son of Reverend William Thomas, born at Radnor in 1711, called to the ministry in 1749, ordained in 1751, and became pastor at Montgomery at the death of Benjamin Griffith. He had charge of both the Hill- town churches, and at the same time preached for a small congregation among the "Rocks," north of Tohickon. At the death of Mr. Thomas, in 1790, he was suc- ceeded by Reverend James McLaughlin. The Reverend Joseph Mathias was chosen and ordained pastor in 1806, who officiated there until his death in 1851. His mother died in 1821, at the age of eighty-six. The present pastor is the Reverend Mr. Jones, a Welshman, who was ordained in the fall of 1875. The immediate organization of this church is due to the prevailing difference in political sentiment during the Revolution. The inhabitants of Hilltown were much divided, the whigs probably predominating, but the tories were strong in force. Both sides were exceedingly bitter. The tories refused to take the oath of allegiance to the new government, but they were obliged to give their paroles not to leave the county. This was a great inconvenience to them, as they lived near the county line, across which they were accustomed to go on business, for pleasure, and to attend the Montgomery church, of which most of them were members. This situation afforded the whigs a good opportunity to annoy their less loyal neighbors, which they were not slow to avail themselves of. On one occasion while the tories were attending church, a vengeful neighbor had them arrested and taken before a justice of the peace, but the latter understanding the cause discharged them. This unpleasant condition of things hastened the formation of a new congregation, and the Hilltown church was constituted ac- cordingly. Whigs and tories were united peaceably in the work. In the next two years there was an addition of forty members, making ninety-four in all. Of the constituent members thirteen were Thomases, six Brittains, and five Mathiases. The Hilltown church was torn down in April, 1875, preparatory to rebuilding. In the corner-stone were found three pieces of silver coin, one ten and two five cent pieces, coined in 1802 and 1803. The documents, when ex- posed to the atmosphere, blew away like ashes. The old house was built in 1804.

Saint Peter's church, Lutheran and Reformed, on the Bethlehem road a mile and a half from Line Lexington, was erected in 1804-5, on a lot conveyed by the heirs of Abraham Cope, the 18th of June, 1803. At the corner-stone laying were present Reverends Messrs. Thomas, Pomp, and Senn, Reformed, and Messrs. Yager, George Roeller, and Rewenack, Lutheran. [The first pastor was Rev. Jacob Senn, who preached his first sermon April 1, 1805. *] The house was of stone, forty- five by thirty-eight feet, with galleries on three sides, and an elevated pul- pit, and seats for about five hundred persons. When erected it was one of the handsomest places of worship in this section of the county. During the [first*] seventy years that it stood not over six hundred dollars were spent to keep it in repair. The Reformed congregation numbers about four hundred, and in the last [forty years several*] new congregations have been built up from it. The Lutheran pastors, in succession, have been Messrs. Mench, Wyand, William B. Kemmerer, for thirty years, and F. Berkemeyer, who [was in charge many years*] has been in charge for the last sixteen years [and the present pastor is Rev. M. J. Kuehner.*] The pastors on the Reformed side served as follows: Reverends George Wack, 1805 to 1827. In 1821 J. W. Dechant supplied for Wack while he was a member of the Legislature. Henry Gerhart, 1827 to 1834. H. S. Bassler, 1834 to 1839, I. W. Haugen, 1840 to 1842, A. Berky, 1843 to 1845, J. Naille, 1845 to 1852, A. L. Dechant, 1852 to 1858. Without a pastor from 1858 to 1860. W. R. Yearick, commenced his pastorate in 1860 [and was installed the following February. At his first communion, May 25, 1861, there were present one hundred and ninety-six communicants, thirty-six received into the church by confirma- tion. The congregation of St. Luke's church constitute part of the Hilltown charge.*] During the existence of this congregation, the pastorates of Rever- ends Dechant and Yearick were the most prosperous. The congregation at present numbers two hundred and seventy-five [some three hundred*] members. The Rever- end Abraham Berky subsequently joined the Dutch Reformed church, and died in 1867 at the age of sixty-two. The Reverend Peter S. Fisher, pastor of this church, was struck with fatal illness while preaching there, May 22, 1873. Some ten years ago [Many years ago*] an organ was bought for the church at a cost of $4,000. In 1870 the Hilltown cemetery association, a chartered company, laid out a burial-ground opposite the church across the turnpike, containing nine acres. Trees and evergreens have been planted, and the walks graveled. The church has shedding for two hundred horses. Down to March, 1875, there had been very little alteration in the old building, but it was then town down and a new house erected on its site. Saint Luke's church, Reformed and Lutheran, of Dublin, is a brick structure, built in 1870. The Reverend William R. Yearick was elected the Reformed pastor, and organized with fourteen members. It now has a membership of ninety-three [over a hundred*] and a flourishing Sunday school. Reverend Mr. Fritz is pastor of the Lutheran congregation. [Among the subsequent pastors were the Reverends Fritz, Lutheran, to 1899, A. R. Horn, 1883, J. W. Magin, 1888, R. B. Lynch and others.*]

The German Lutherans,(9) though numerous in Pennsylvania, had none to preach to them in their own tongue until John Peter Miller, a graduate of Heidelberg, arrived in Philadelphia, and was ordained by Tennent, Andrews and Boyd in 1730. In 1729 many Lutherans removed from New York to Berks county, among which was the well-known Conrad Weiser. The name German Reformed was changed to the Reformed church of the United States in 1869. It is derived from the Reformed church of Germany and Switzerland as distinguished from the Lutherans. The latter agrees with the Reformed church in holding the Heidelberg catechism as its Confession of Faith, but differs from it, in not requiring its members to subscribe to the Belgic Confession and the articles of the Synod of Dordrecht. It is the oldest of Protestant denominations which are generally known as "Reformed churches." It has been weakened in Europe by the union of portions of the Lutheran and Reformed churches to form the "Evangelical church of Germany," but it still numbers some eight or ten millions of communicants. Scattered members of the Reformed church came to Pennsylvania soon after Penn settled the province. In a few years they began to arrive in large numbers, and the Reformed constituted the larger portion of the German immigration. In 1730 they numbered upward of fifteen thousand in this state. Subsequently Lutheran immigration became more numerous, and the Reformed have ever since continued in the minority. The first German Reformed church in Pennsylvania is said to have been erected at Skippack, Montgomery county, in 1726, but other churches claim the same honor. In the United States this denomination numbers about one thousand three hundred churches and one hundred and thirty thousand communicants. In this county the Dutch Reformed established churches several years before the German Reformed, and the pastors of the former churches cooper- ated cordially with their German brethren, preached for congregations that had no pastors of their own, and they were admitted members of the German Synod. The harmony and Christian fraternity in which Lutheran and Reformed worship in the same church convey a lesson that should not be lost on other denominations. The Methodist church at Mount Pleasant, in Hilltown, built about 1842, grew out of a camp-meeting held in the neighborhood, the first in the upper end of the county.

The villages of Hilltown, or which she claims in part or in whole, are Line Lexington, Dublin and Leidytown, all small places. The first named, in the south-western corner of the township, lays along both sides of the county line between Bucks and Montgomery, and is in two counties and three townships. [It was first called Lexington. About 1810, when Henry Leidy began making hats there and putting his name in them, the village name was changed to Line Lexington, 1827, when the post-office was established. The first post-master was named Sinnickson. About 1800, a tavern, store and a few houses scattered along the road constituted the village generally known as "Middletown" from being half way on the stage road between Philadelphia and the Lehigh. Jacob Clemens kept the tavern eighty years ago and was there as early as 1800. The first stage to pass what is now Line Lexington was September 10, 1763, from Bethlehem to Philadelphia.*] It contains about forty [fifty*] dwellings, with a population of 250, one tavern, two stores, three smiths and a coach-shop. The tavern is built on the line between New Britain and Hilltown, and while the landlord behind the bar stands in the latter township, the customer who takes a drink stands in the former. The landlord sleeps on the New Britain side of the house, and votes in Hilltown. An extension of the village has been laid out on the farm of Casper Wack, but there is no present prospect of much improvement. Hatfield township, Montgomery county, shares the honors with Line Lexington. At this point the Bethlehem turnpike, in its course from the Lehigh to Phila- delphia, being half-way between these two places, horses and coaches were changed, and the passengers took dinner. Among the earliest settlers in and about the village were the families of Trewig, Harman, Snare, and Clemens. The post-office is in Montgomery county, but we do not know when it was established. Dublin is in the extreme eastern section of the township, on the Swamp road, and lies partly in Bedminster, in which township it will be further noticed. Leidytown, a flourishing little village on the Old Bethlehem road, contains some twenty dwellings, and a Methodist church, built about 1846. Half a mile above, on the same road, is the hamlet of Mount Pleasant, consisting of half a dozen houses, the seat of Hilltown post-office, established in 1817, with Elisha Lunn for postmaster.

Within a few years "Myers' store," two miles west of Dublin, has grown to a place of twenty dwellings, several of them brick, with a brick yard and the usual assortment of mechanics, and now known as Blooming Glen. The Moyers or Myers, were early settlers in that section, which contains large landowners. Near the village is Perkasie meeting house, Mennonite, attended by a large congregation; Blooming Glen, in the eastern part of the township, has a popu- lation of three hundred and is the largest village in the township. Silverdale, on the turnpike between Dublin and Telford, was first called "Portland," then "Lawndale," and subsequently changed to its present name, has a population of two hundred and fifty. *

We have seen no record of roads in Hilltown earlier than 1730. In that year one was laid out from "Pleasant spring run by Bernard Young's land" to the county line near Graeme park. This was an outlet for the settlers at the Great swamp, Rockhill and Hilltown, to the lower mills and Philadelphia. Four years afterward a road was opened from Charles Morris's, by Perkasie school-house, to the Old Bethlehem road. About the same time a road was opened from Thomas Morris's to that from Sellersville to Whitehallville, which led via what is now Doylestown to Newtown, then the county seat. The road from the Swamp road to the Hilltown Baptist church was laid out in 1766. At that day the Swamp road was a much traveled highway to the lower part of the county. The two Bethlehem roads, known as the Old and the New, which run through Hilltown, were laid out at an early day. Books were opened for subscription to stock to turnpike the Bethlehem road; from Trewig's tavern via Sellersville, in June, 1806.

The first enumeration of inhabitants, in 1784, gives Hilltown 941 whites and 154 dwellings. In 1810 the population was 1,335; 1820, 1,501; 1830, 1,669, and 378 taxables; 1840, 1,910; 1850, 2,290 whites and 11 blacks; 1860 2,726, all whites, and in 1870, 2,869, of which 2,764 were whites, 5 blacks, and 129 were foreign-born[; 1880, 3,152; 1890, 3,022; 1900, 3,170.*]

The surface of Hilltown is rolling and hilly, and is watered by the branches of the Neshaminy and Perkiomen.

Hilltown was the birthplace of two members of the House of Representatives of the United States, John Pugh and Matthias Morris.

In 1897, a pipe line to convey coal oil from Millway, Lancaster county, Pennsylvania, to Bayonne, New Jersey, was laid across Bucks county. Entering the county at Telford it passes through the townships of Hilltown, Plumstead and Solebury, leaving below Center Bridge and crossing the Delaware into Hunter- don county, New Jersey. The pipes are eight inches in diameter and laid below the frost line; and the time occupied in laying them was four months. A tele- graph line follows the pipe line. When full they have a capacity of three hundred and twenty barrels to the mile, and, when in full working order the company can pump from eight thousand to ten thousand barels a day. At Millway is the largest an dmost complete pumping station in the world. The oil is delivered at Bayonne by force pumps and thence distributed to the refineries. The line is the property of the "National Transit Company."

END OF CHAPTER XXII.

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Footnotes:



History of Plumstead Township, Bucks County, PA

CHAPTER XXIV

PLUMSTEAD

1725

Location of Plumstead. -First land-owner. -Henry Child. -Christopher Day. -Thomas Brown. -John Dyer. -Micheners*. -First mill. -Easton road opened. -William Michener. -The Shaws*. -Old draft. -Township organized. -The Child family. -The Doanes. -Friends' meeting. -The Votaws*. -Remains of church. -Its history. -Philip Hinkle*. -Dunlaps*. -Griers*. -Nash*. -Old graveyard. - Mennonite meeting-house. -Charles Huston. -Indians. -Last wolf killed. -Roads opened. -Plumsteadville, Point Pleasant et al. -Oldest house. -"Poor Plumstead." -Immigration to Canada. -John Ellicott Carver. -Horse company. -Population. -Aged persons. -Morgan Hinchman. -Fretz's mill. -Post-offices.

Immediately north of Buckingham and Solebury lies a tract of country divided into valley and plain by Pine run and North branch, that flow west into the Neshaminy, and by Hickory, Geddes, and Cabin runs, that empty into the Delaware. In most parts the ground falls gradually away to the streams, and the contiguous slopes are joined by level stretches of farm land. This region of valley and plain and winding creeks is Plumstead township, now a little more than 175 (1905 edition) years old.

English Friends pushed their way up into the woods of Plumstead, through Buckingham and Solebury at an early day, and were on the extreme limit of the tidal- wave of civilization that swept upward from the Delaware. Here, after a time, were encountered other streams of immigration, and the followers of Penn were arrested in their course by others contending for the mastery in settling the forest. The lower and middle parts of the township were settled mainly by Friends, and the upper part by Scotch-Irish Presbyterians, and later by Germans. The Brittons and Gibsons lieved in the lower part.

One of the first to own land in the township was Francis Plumstead, an ironmonger of London, who received a grant of 2,500 acres from William Penn, in consideration of 50, dated October 25, 1683. Of this grant, 100 acres were surveyed to Plumstead in the township which bears his name, by virtue of two warrants, dated the 21st and 29th of June, 1704, for which a patent was issued the following January. It joined the lands of widow Musgrave or Musgrove, Joseph Paul, and Elizabeth Sand, who were already land-owners, and probably settlers. The entire grant must have been located in the township, for we find from John Cutler's re-survey of 1703, that the whole 2,500 acres are returned to Francis Plumstead. He never came to America, but conveyed his land to Richard Hill, a merchant of Philadelphia.

In January 1681 William Penn granted 500 acres to Henry Child, [of Coleshill parish of Rindisham, County Herford*] which he located in Plumstead, and which was confirmed to him in 1705. [He settled in Maryland, and on the 7th day, 4th month, 1715 conveyed the same to his son Cephas Child, then of Philadelphia, who removed to Plumstead the same year, taking with him a certificate to Middletown Monthly meeting. In 1716 he married Mary Atkinson, the ceremony taking place at Middletown.*] Henry Child owned about 1,000 acres in all. [Cephas Child became a prominent man; was member of Assembly 1747-49, and the latter year, was member of the Provincial finance committee, and of the auditing committee. Cephas Cooke, Jr., married Priscilla, daughter of Joseph Naylor, at Gwynedd meeting, February 16, 1751, and died August 17, 1768. Cephas was married twice, his second wife being Agnes (Grier) Kennedy, widow of Major Kennedy, killed in the attack on the Doane outlaws, September 1, 1783. She was a daughter of Matthew and Jane Caldwell Grier, immigrants from the North of Ireland, 1730. Cephas Child, Jr., (1) died July 14, 1815.*] In 1686 Arthur Cooke (2) of Frankford, received a patent for 2,000 acres, which lay in part along the northwest line of the township, on what is now the Dublin road. At his death, in 1699, his widow and executrix, Margaret Cooke, and his son, John, conveyed 1,000 acres to Clement and Thomas Dungan, settlers in the township, and probably descendants of Reverend Thomas Dungan, of Cold spring. In 1708 they sold fifty acres to Christopher Day, who passed his life in Plumstead, and died in 1748. Day was a considerable land-owner, and in 1723 he sold 150 acres to John Basset, of Philadelphia, who in turn conveyed seventy- five acres to John Dyer the same year. (3)

One of the earliest settlers in the southeast corner of Plumstead was Thomas Brown, [an immigrant from Barking, county Essex, England. He was the son of George Browne, born 1666, and married Mary, daughter of Alexander Eyre, of Burrow, Lincoln, at Plaistow Friends meeting, 1694. They came to America the winter of 1700-01, and after living a while in Philadelphia, removed to a 245 acre tract in the Manor of Moorland. In a few years Browne bought 1,500 acres in Plumstead and Buckingham, and located on it near the present Dyerstown. "Brownsville," now Gardenville, is on this tract and was named after the family. Until the Friends were able to erect a meeting house Thomas Browne allowed them to hold services in his house. This was about 1729- 31. He and his two sons conveyed fifteen acres to the meeting for a nominal sum. Thomas and Mary Eyre Browne had issue:
          George, married Sarah, daughter of John Shaw, Southampton,
          Thomas, born 1696, married first Elizabeth, daughter of John Dawson, Solebury; second Magdalen Jones,
          Mary, married James, son of John Shaw, (4) Southampton,
          John
          Ann
          Alexander, married Esther, daughter of John Dyer,
          Elizabeth, married Thomas Robinson,
          Joseph, married Anne, daughter of John Dawson, Solebury,
          Esther, married Josiah, son of John Dyer.
Thomas Browne spent his life in Plumstead and died there.*]
[Among the descendants of Thomas and Mary Eyre Browne and connected by marriage, were a number of distinguished persons.*] His son Thomas became a minister among Friends, and died at Philadelphia, whither he had removed, August 21, 1757. His declaration of intention of marriage with Elizabeth Davison [Dawson*], February 7, 1720, was the first made in Buckingham quarterly meeting. [Alexander Brown's daughter Esther married Andrew Ellicott, Solebury, who was the first surveyor-general of the United States, assisted Major L'Enfant to lay out the city of Washington, was commissioner on the part of the United States to run the line between this country and Spain, 1800, and was Professor of mathematics at West Point. Major-General Harvey Brown, United States Army, was a great-grandson and a graduate of West Point. One of the children of Andrew Ellicott married Henry Baldwin, justice of the Supreme Court of the United States, and another, Lieut-Col. Henry Douglas, United States Army. Other descendants married into the family of Carrol, of Maryland, Barringer, of North Carolina, and Wigton, New Britain. The late John S. Brown, a number of years publisher and editor of the Bucks County "Intelligencer," and who filled several offices of financial trust, was descendant of Thomas Browne, the immigrant.*]

The first to encroach upon the retirement of Thomas Brown was John Dyer, a minister among Friends, an immigrant from Gloucestershire, England, with his family, about 1712. He first settled in Philadelphia, then came out to what was known as the "five-mile mill," on the York road, and thence removed to the woods of Plumstead. On June 16, 1718, he purchased 151 acres of Cephas Child, including the Dyer property at Dyerstown. He is said to have likewise purchased the improvements of Thomas Brown, who removed farther back into the woods, about where the Plumstead meeting-house stands. The Dyer property only passed out of the family a few years ago, when Doctor John Dyer, a descendant, removed to Philadelphia. John Dyer was a useful man in Plumstead. He built the first mill (5) in the township, and one of the first in this section of the county, about where the present mill stands at Dyerstown. He was instrumental in having the Easton road laid out and opened from Governor Keith's place at the county line to his mill, and for many years it bore no other name than "Dyer's mill road." He died 31st of the 11th month, 1738, and was buried at the Friends' meeting-house in Plumstead. He owned in all about 600 acres. When John Dyer came into the township wild animals were so plentiful that the settlers took their guns with them to meeting, and the beavers built their dams across Pine run. The Indians were numerous, but friendly.

William Michener, [ancestor of the greater number of those bearing the name in the county, was an English Friend, born 10 mo. 14, 1696, came to America, married Mary Custisse, Abington, 4 mo., 1720, removed to Plumstead, 1723, and took up 400 acres. They had ten children, John, Mordecai, Sarah, Mary, William, Joseph, Elizabeth, Meshack, Margaret and George. Upon the death of his first wife William Michener married Ann Schofield, a widow, 1761. Meshack, eight child of William Michener, was the grandfather of the late Isaiah Michener, Buckingham.*]

The ancestor of the Nash family, the great-grandfather of Samuel, came from England, and was buried at Horsham. He was probably a Friend, and settled in that township. His descendants are Mennonites and Germanized. His son Joseph, who removed from Bedminster to Tinicum, where he died, was an elder of the Mennonite Deep Run meeting.

[The Shaws, of Plumstead and Doylestown, were descendants of the Shaws of Southampton and Northampton, where they settled near at the close of the seventeenth century. The James Shaw, who married Mary, daughter of Thomas and Mary Browne, Plumstead, September 24, 1718, was the son of John Shaw, Northampton, and born there, January 9, 1694. At what time he came to Plumstead is not known. His wife died June 9, 1760. Thomas Browne, his father-in-law, on June 18, 1724, conveyed to James and Mary Shaw, nee Browne, 200 acres in Plumstead. They had six children, among them, James, born January 27, 1724, who married Mary, daughter of Ephraim Fenton, the latter had seven children, the eldest, Josiah, who married Mary Pryor, the parents of seven children. This is the first appearance of the name "Josiah" among the Bucks county Shaws. In 1725, the names of James and Thomas Shaw appear among the petitioners asking for the organization of Plumstead township. John Shaw born in Plumstead, 1745, was a man of local prominence; was a Whig in the Revolution, taking the oath of allegiance before Thomas Dyer, 1777. He was appointed a magistrate by Governor Mifflin, about 1790, and, at his death, was the oldest in commission in the county, but one. In 1802 he moved into New Britain on the Mercer farm, where he died, 1818. His wife, Agnes, died at eighty-nine. Josiah Y. Shaw, a son of John, born, 1770, spent the most of his life in Doylestown and was a man of prominence. He was one of the founders, and a trustee of the Union Academy, 1804, brigade inspector with rank of major, 1809, justice of the peace, several years and member of Assembly. Francis B. Shaw, a member of the bar and a journalist, was a brother of Josiah Y.*]

[Richard Hill, merchant, Philadelphia, was an early land owner in Plumstead, but never lived there. He was a man of wealth, owning houses in Philadelphia. It is stated elsewhere in this chapter that Francis Plumstead conveyed his 2,500 acres to Hill. He conveyed all this land, subject to a ground rent; among the conveyances were the following: 1723, 150 acres to James Hughes; 250, William Michener; 300, John Dyer; 1725, 375 acres to John Britain; 1728, 150, John Earl; 150 to John McCarty, 1,375 in all. August 7, 1729, Mr. Hill made his will and devised these lands to his grand-nephew, Richard Hill, and his sister Hannah, wife of Samuel Preston Moore. In 1745, Dr. Richard Hill mortgaged these lands to Thomas White for 1,500 and is described in the mortgage as a "Philadelphia merchant" residing in parts beyond sea, which document stated that Richard Hill and his sister, Hannah Moore, were the residuary legatees of Dr. Richard hill, father of the said Richard Hill. Two hundred and fifty acres were conveyed to Abraham Hill, who, with his wife, Elizabeth, conveyed one hundred acres of the same land, bounded by Matthew Grier and the Stump Road, Andrew Oliphant, Enoch Thomas and David Caldwell to their son Isaac, 1762, and Isaac dying, 1798, the owner of one hundred and five acres, he devised it to his son Isaac. He left eleven children, Abraham, William, Richard, Margaret, Isaac, Sarah, Elizabeth, Nancy, Mary, Lydia and Rebecca. Of these, Sarah was the grandmother of John Harris, Rebecca, first wife of Richard Riale, Ann married Jonathan Hough, Mary married Benjamin Day, and Elizabeth, Nathan Riale; Lydia, who remained single, died in Plumstead, 18139, and Elizabeth, 1832.*]

[William Hill, son of Isaac, Jr., married a daughter of David Evans the Universalist preacher, New Britain, and settled near Uniontown, Pennsylvania, where he died, his widow and children returning to Bucks county. Their children were Thomas, David, James, Susan Kerns, Elizabeth, Mary Ann, married Evan Evans, who went West, David married Cynthia Worthington and settled in Ohio, and James Evans Hill married Naomi Rodrock, and lived and died in New Britain. George E. Hill is his only surviving son. William Hill, son of the first Isaac, died in Plumstead, 1886, leaving three sons, Ira, Moses and Charles. William Hill, Warrington, and his brother Harvey, New Britain, are surviving sons of Charles Hill. Amos Hill, son of Moses, lived and died in Philadelphia, wh ere his son Eugene H. still lives. Richard Hill, son of the first Isaac, died near New Galena, 1848, leaving a widow and seven children, Abraham, David, Elizabeth, wife of Michael Hofford, Parmelia, Sarah, Rebecca, Clymer and Margaret Ott.*]

On an old draft of Plumstead, drawn March 11, 1724, are marked the following land-owners, all located in the southwest part of the township, near the Buckingham line: Arthur Day, Henry Child, John Dyer, (two tracts,) Richard Hill, 1,500 acres, Abraham Hilyer [Hayter*], Silas MacCarty, William Michener, (6) John Earl, James Shaw, James Brown, Henry Paul, Samuel Barker, Thomas Brown, Jr., Richard Lundy, and H. Large. No doubt there were others, but at this time the settlers did not extend far into the woods. Probably some of those names were not inhabitants of the township in 1724. [Among the early settlers of Plumstead were John and Rebecca Votaw, but we neither know when they came into the township, where from, nor when they left it. Their son Isaac, born in Plumstead, 2, 11, 1768, was married at Buckingham meeting, to Ann Smith, sister of Moses Smith, but we have not the date. The family removed to the west many years ago, and E. W. Votaw, a great-grandson of Isaac, lives at Hawarden, Indiana. The name long since disappeared from the township, nor is it found in the county records. It is possible there are descendants in the female line.*]

An effort was made to organize a township about 1715, when the settlers north of Buckingham petitioned the court to lay it off. On the 17th of June a draft of the survey of a new township, which probably accompanied the report of the jury, was ordered to be filed. The territory asked to be laid off contained about 14,000 acres, and the township was to be called Plumstead. The court could not have approved the report of the jury if it reported in favor of the new township, for Plumstead was not laid out and organized until ten years later. It is probable the prayer of the petitioners was not granted because of the lack of population. In March 1725 twenty inhabitants of a district of country north of Buckingham, not yet organized into a township, namely, Thomas Shaw, John Brown, Alexander Brown, Richard Lundy, John Lundy, Henry Large, Thomas Brown, Jr., Humphrey Roberts, John Earl, Thomas Earl, William Michener, William Woodcock, John Dyer, Samuel Dyer, Abraham Hayter, (7) Herman Buster, Silas MacCarty, William Wilkison, Christopher Day, and James Shaw, petitioned the court of quarter sessions to lay of "a certain quantity or parcel of land to be erected into the form of a township," the boundaries of which were to begin "at the uppermost corner of Buckingham at the corner of Richard Day's land." This embraced what is now Plumstead and Bedminster. The survey of the township was probably returned at the June term, but we have found no record of it. It was named after Francis Plumstead, (8) ironmonger, of London, one of the earliest land-owners in the township. The present area of Plumstead is 12,800 acres.

The Hoover family of Bucks and Montgomery counties, are descended from Jacob Huber, who came from Germany about 1732. He was the youngest of four brothers, and a minor at the time of his arrival. The family is believed to have been Swiss. He settled in Plumstead, but we are not informed of his exact location. In 1797 the son, Henry Huber, removed to Gwynedd township Montgomery county, purchasing 200 acres of the farm of George Maris for 1800. Henry Huber or Hoover, as the name was spelled, by this time, is said to have removed from Hilltown to Gwynedd. He had a son Philip, who married Mary, daughter of Frederick Conrad, of Worcester, who represented the county in Congress. Henry Hoover died April 9, 1809, but the Montgomery homestead remained in the family down to 1885, a period of eight-six years, from the first purchase. He was born December 1, 1751, and his wife, Margaret, died November 27, 1813, in her sixty-second year. The descendants of Jacob Huber are numerous in Bucks and Montgomery and hold an annual family reunion.

The Doanes came into the township and [descended from John Doane of Plymouth, England, who settled in Barnstable county,*], Massachusetts [prior to 1630. The name is Norman French, was spelled in various ways, and the first ancestor probably came over with William the Conqueror. The family was prominent in Massachusetts, one member being a Lieutenant at the siege of Louisburg. Daniel Doane, grandson of John the Immigrant, married Mehitable Twining, united with the Friends at Sandwich, 1696, and with their four children came to Bucks county, settling at Newtown. He died here August 8, 1743. Israel Doane was in Plumstead as early as 1726 and settled near the meeting-house. Joseph Doane, an excellent man and citizen, was the father of the Doane outlaws of the Revolution, and they who were not killed or hanged, made their escape to Canada.*] Joseph Brown, probably the son of Thomas, an original settler, purchased 250 acres in 1734, John Boyle 300 acres in 1736, and the same year Joseph Large, probably a son of Henry, who had been in the township twelve or fifteen years, purchased land [quantity is not given. Philip Hinkel, who settled in Plumstead soon after the middle of the eighteenth century, is thought to have been a descendant of the Rev. Gerhard Henkel, a Lutheran minister who settled at Germantown about 1740. His paternal grandmother was Mary Johnson, an English Quakeress, whose ancestors, on both sides were Scotch Presbyterians, and came to Bucks county, 1716. Philip's brother Joseph went to North Carolina, and both served in the Revolution. December 16, 1766, Robert MacFarland, Plumstead, and Elizabeth, his wife, conveyed to Philip Hinkle 153 acres and 52 perches, which James Polk had conveyed to MacFarland, 1759. In the record of Bucks county we find that Peter Hinkels was naturalized August 26, 1735, but he was hardly of the same family as Philip. In 1771 Philip Hinkle had a contention with Thomas Shewell, New Britain, in relation to a warrant that Shewell laid within his survey. Among the descendants of Philip Hinkle were Philip, born October 24, 1811, died October 26, 1880, and Anthony Hughes, born March 19, 1815, and died June 25, 1883, both grandsons of Philip, the elder. They spent their business life in Cincinnati and died there. The Hinkle descendants are to be found in New Britain, Richland and other townships. The home of Philip Hinkle, the elder, was at Hinkletown with his cultivated acres spreading around him.*] (9)

The Carlisles and Penningtons settled in the township considerably before the middle of the last century. John Carlisle and Sarah Pennington were married at Plumstead meeting, July 5, 1757, and she died in 1785. They were the grandparents of Mrs. Carr, of Danborough, she and Rachel Rich being their only two surviving grandchildren. The McCallas were in Plumstead before 1750, William, the first comer, being an immigrant from Scotland, but it is not known whether he was married when he came to America, or married here. (10 His son Andrew, who was born in the township November 6, 1757, removed to Kentucky, where he married and had six children. One of his sons was the Reverend William Latta McCalla, a distinguished Presbyterian minister, and General Jackson's chaplain in the Seminole war, and another, the late John Moore McCalla, adjutant-general of the American forces at the massacre at the river Raisin. William McCalla removed, before the Revolution, from Plumstead to Philadelphia, where he formed the acquaintance of General Lafayette, who was a frequent visitor at his house. We do not know at what time he died. Henry Huddleston owned land in Plumstead in 1752, and the same year John Watson surveyed forty-eight acres to Robert McFarlin, on a warrant dated June 17.

The Dunlaps were early in Plumstead, John and Jane Dunlap, Protestant Irish, first located at the Forks of the Delaware, now the vicinity of Easton, and there all their children were born, but, when the Indians became troublesome, removed down to Plumstead. The wife's maiden name was Hazlett, but, whether they married before coming to America, we are not informed. They were parents of seven children, John, Elizabeth, Mary, Andrew, Moses, James and Robert. John, the eldest, died December 4, 1809, at the age of ninety-two, and his wife, January 17, 1775, aged fifty. Another son died September 17, 1777, of sickness contracted while serving in the Continental army, and Robert, March 12, 1806, at the age of thirty-six. The Hendrie family, formerly of Doylestown, are descended from John and Jane Dunlap, in the female line. Andrew Dunlap, probably the son of Andrew, bought a farm in Doylestown township early in the last century, where he died. He had several children, and among the names were Phebe, who married a Hazlett, Lydia, Mary, Eliza, Robert, the youngest, a Presbyterian minister, who married a Miss Rutter, Wilkesbarre. Andrew Dunlap built a home in Doylestown on what is now Court street, for his two daughters, where they died many years ago. James Dunlap, son of Andrew, was a merchant in Philadelphia.*] (Although Jesse's daughter Elizabeth married a John Dunlap circa 1806 in Pickaway County, OH, it is not clear that this would be a relation; it is possible that John Dunlap Jr 1718-1809 had a grandson John Dunlap who moved to OH. More research would be needed.)

[George and Hezekiah Rogers, Scotch immigrants, settled in Plumstead sometime in the last century, but we have not the data, taking up 640 acres covering a site of Benner's corner, 50 acres being still in the family. Ann Rogers, daughter of George, married Thomas, son of George Geary, Montgomery county and township, about 1794. They had nine children:
          1. Charles, born 1796, died 1798
          2. Harriet, born 1802
          3. Maria, 1804, married Anthony Heaney, Tinicum
          4. Mary, 1806
          5. Sarah E., 1809
          6. Julia, 1812
          7. Susan, 1814, married James Bleiler
          8. Emilla, 1817, married Elias Benner, Plumstead
          9. Isabella, the youngest, born ?, lives in Doylestown with her niece,

Mrs. Lettie B. Farren. George Geary kept store awhile at Greenville, Buckingham township, then removed to Muncy, Lycoming county, subsequently returning to Plumstead, where he taught school and kept store until his death, 1840. His wife, born 1777, died at Doylestown, 1871, at ninety-four. Hiram Rogers, son of Hezekiah, settled in Minnesota and was one of the pioneers of St. Paul. George Geary settled near Montgomeryville, and took up a large tract, married Sarah Evans, Gwynedd, 1782, and wife died September 25, 1808. He had seven children, Thomas, David, Elizabeth, Mary, Hannah, Ann and Catharine. David Geary was the ancestor of the late Governor John W. Geary, probably his grandfather, and, when at Doylestown, 1866, a candidate for Governor, he called to see Mrs. And Miss Geary, then living here. The daughter, Isabella, was long a teacher in the public school.*]

We have a tradition that the first meetings of Friends, at private houses, were held sometime in the winter of 1727. However this may be, we find that on October 2, 1728, Plumstead Friends asked to have a meeting for worship every other First day, which was granted, and it was held at the house of Thomas Brown. The first meeting- house was ordered to be erected in 1729, and the location was fixed near where the present house stands, by the previous opening of a graveyard at that spot. The ground, 15 acres, was the gift of Thomas Brown and his sons Thomas and Alexander, in consideration of 15 shillings. The deed bears date the 19th of January, 1730, and was executed in trust to Richard Lundy, Jr., William Michener, Josiah Dyer and Joseph Dyer. The spot on which the first log meeting-house was erected, in 1730, was selected by Thomas Watson, Thomas Canby, Abraham Chapman, Cephas Child and John Dyer, committee appointed by the monthly meeting of Buckingham and Wrightstown. This house stood until 1752, when it was torn down and the present stone meeting-house was built. During the Revolutionary war this building was used as an hospital, and marks of blood are still upon the floor. Some who died there were buried in a field near by. (11) Judge Huston, when a boy, went to school in the old meeting-house, his father at the time keeping the tavern at Gardenville. On a handrail inside the building is dimly seen, written in chalk, the name of David Kinsey, the carpenter who did the wood work. The old building was partly torn down and re-built in the summer of 1875. From the yard one obtains a beautiful view down into the valley of Pine run and of the slope beyond.

[The Greir or Grier (12) family, Scotch-Irish Presbyterians, made their appearance in Bucks county about 1735-40, and their descendants in future years, were found in Plumstead, New Britain, Warrington and Warwick. The first to come were Mathew and John Grier from County Tyrone, Ireland. They settled in New Britain township, and in 1743, purchased 150 acres jointly, on the east side of the Swamp road, now the Dublin turnpike, and erected a dwelling at what is Grier's Corner. These two immigrants were born 1712 and 1714, respectively. They later extended their holdings up the Swamp road to the present line of Broad street in Hilltown township. In 1744 Mathew purchased 250 acres on the east side of the Swamp road, in Plumstead, and in 1752, Mathew conveyed his interest in the New Britain and Hilltown lands, to his brother John, who extended his purchases until he owned at his death, about 500 acres in contiguous tracts.*

[Mathew Grier, the elder, ancestor of the late James H. Greir, of Warrington township, married Jean Caldwell, born 1717, daughter of James Caldwell, who owned an adjoining farm fronting the Stump road, and his brother John Greir married her sister Agnes Caldwell. Mathew Grier died 1792, leaving three sons and three daughters:
          1. John, born 1743, and died 1814, married Jean Stuart
          2. Susannah, born 1749, married Joseph Greer, supposed to have been a cousin, died 1823 and Joseph Greer died in Hilltown, 1822
          3. Mathew married Sarah Snodgrass, died 1811
          4. Agnes, married first Major William Kennedy, who was killed in the capture of Moses Doan, and second Cephas Child
          5. Mary, born 1760, married Josiah Ferguson, 1779, died 1844
          6. (No name for third son, possibly an error).
John and Agnes Caldwell Greir were the parents of eleven children:
          1. Mathew, born October 1743, died September 11, 1818
          2. Martha, married John Jamison, 1768 (Curiously, Jesse's daughter Cynthia marries Joseph Jamison circa 1835 in Pickaway County, OH)
          3. Jane married Joseph Thomas, 1768
          4. Rev. James Grier, born 1750, died 1791
          5. Joseph, born 1752
          6. John died in infancy
          7. Nathan died in infancy
          8. John, born 1758, died 1831
          9. Rev. Nathan, born 1760, died 1814
          10. Cornelius died young
          11. Frances, born 1762, married James Ralston.
While the descendants of Mathew and John Grier are generally engaged in agricultural pursuits, the family is represented in trade and the learned professions, and is especially noted for the number of sons it has furnished the gospel ministry. John Grier, probably the descendant of Bucks county ancestry, who removed to Chester county, 1796, had three sons in the ministry, the eldest, John Hayes Grier, born February 1788, and died 1880, at ninety-two, graduated at Dickinson College in the class of James Buchanan. In 1814 he took charge of the Pine Creek and Lock Haven churches, Clinton county, and was the first minister of any denomination to settle at Jersey Shore, Lycoming county. He was a successful teacher, and several of the leading men of the West Branch were educated by him. He was married four times and the father of eleven children, seven surviving him. James Grier, son of the first John, was pastor of the Deep Run church and died there. His son, John Ferguson Grier, born 1784, graduated with first honors, 1803, studied theology with his uncle Nathan, opened a classical school at Brandywine Manor, and was licensed to preach by the New Castle Presbytery. Nathan Grier, brother of James of Deep Run, born 1760, graduated at the University of Pennsylvania, 1783, and was licensed to preach, 1786, married a Miss Smith, a great aunt of General Persifer F. Smith, one of the most distinguished officers in the Mexican was, 1846-48. He died at Brandywine about 1815, leaving two sons, both of whom entered the ministry, Robert and John. The latter succeeded his father at Brandywine, where he officiated for half a century, the former dying in Maryland, while pastor of a church near Emmettsburg. Joseph Grier, a brother of Nathan, had two sons, Mathew and John; the former was a physician, and died at Williamsport, the latter studied for the ministry, was thirty-five years a chaplain in the United States Navy, and father of the Reverend M. B. Grier, one of the editors of the Presbyterian. The late Justice Grier of the Supreme Court of the United States, is claimed as a member of this family. In the old burial ground at Princeton, New Jersey, is a grave stone bearing the inscription," In memory of Jane, relict of Mathew Grier, of Bucks county, Pennsylvania, died December 31, 1799, aged eighty-three years."*]

[The members of the family were prominent in Revolutionary times. The young men enrolled themselves with the militia, or associators and some of them saw active service. John Grier, Sr., was a Colonial Justice of the Peace, 1764-67, and, after the colonies took up arms against the mother country, he was a member of the Constitutional Convention of 1776. His son, Col. Joseph Grier, was active in the pursuit and capture of the Doane outlaws, and it is related that owing to his activity against them, on one occasion they made him a visit at night, took him prisoner, and forcibly held his manacled hands in the flames until burned to a blister.*]

On the corner of the farm now belonging to Andrew Shaddinger, at the intersection of the River and Durham roads, two miles from Smith's corner, there stood a small log church an hundred years ago. It is spoken of as the "Deep Run church," the name of an older and larger congregation, in Bedminster. Its history is wrapped in much mystery. It was probably an offshoot of the Bedminster congregation, and the division is said to have been caused by some disagreement among the Scotch-Irish members on doctrinal points. We have a tradition that some held to the tenets of the Kirk of Scotland, which others of the congregation did not assent to, and hence the separation. The Plumstead congregation was called "Seeders," and when there was a division in the church this organization joined the New Brunswick Presbytery. This little church was probably organized before, or about, 1730, and held together for half a century, but the names of only two of its pastors have come down to us. In 1735 Reverend Hugh Carlisle preached there and at Newtown, and two years afterward he refused a call to become the pastor at Plumstead, because these two churches were so far apart. How long he served them, and by whom succeeded, is not known. Carlisle came from England or Ireland, and was admitted into the New Castle Presbytery before 1735. He removed into the bounds of the Lewes Presbytery in 1738, but is not heard of after 1742. The last pastor was probably Alexander Mitchel, and when he left the surviving members probably returned to Deep Run. Mitchel was born in 1731, graduated at Princeton in 1765, was licensed to preach in 1767, and ordained in 1768. It is not known when he was called as pastor, but he left about 1785, and went to the Octoraro and Doe Run churches, in Chester county, where he preached until 1808. Mr. Mitchel did two good things while pastor at Octoraro, introduced stoves, and Watts's psalms and hymns into his churches, both necessary to comfortable worship. On one occasion his congregation took umbrage at a sermon against a ball held in the neighborhood, and on Sunday morning the door was locked and the Bible gone. Nothing daunted, he sent his negro servant up a ladder to get in at a small window over the pulpit. As he was about to enter, the negro stopped and said to his master: "This is not right, for the good book saith, "He that entereth not by the door into the sheep-fold but climbeth up some other way, the same is a thief and a robber.'" Some remains of the Plumstead meeting-house are still to be seen; a portion of the foundation can be traced, and a few gravestones, without inscription, are lying almost buried in the earth. The house was about twenty-eight by seventeen feet, and the lot contained near half an acre. John L. Delp, of Norristown, remembers when the log house was standing.

A Mennonite meeting-house stands on the Black's Eddy road, a mile southwest of Hinkletown, where a branch of the Deep Run congregation assembles for worship once a month. The pulpit is supplied from Deep Run, Doylestown, and New Britain. The first house, stone, twenty-four by twenty-seven feet, was erected in 1806, on an acre of land given by Henry Wismer and wife. It was enlarged in 1832, and is now twenty-seven by forty-three. It was occupied by English and German schools for twenty-five years. The graveyard is free to all outside the congregation who wish to bury there, and the remains of several unknown drowned are lying in it.

On the old Newtown road, at the top of the hill after passing Pine run, a mile above Cross Keys, is an ancient burial-ground, in the corner of the fifty acres that Christopher Day bought of Clement and Thomas Dungan in 1708. By his will, dated September 1, 1746, and proved March 25, 1748, Day gave "ten perches square for a graveyard forever." It is now in a ruined condition, but some forty graves can still be seen, with a few exceptions marked by unlettered stones. The donor was the first to die and be buried in his own ground, March ye 6th, 1748. Another "C. Day," probably his son, died in 1763. The other stones, with inscriptions, are to the memory of J. Morlen, 1749-50, Abraham Fried, December 21, 1772, aged thirty-two years, and William Daves, "a black man," who died February 22, 1815, aged sixty-eight years. Fried and Daves have the most pretentious stones to mark their resting-places, both of marble. The owner of the adjoining land has cut the timber from this ground, and laid bare the graves of the dead of a century and a quarter. Is there no power to keep vandal hands from the spot reserved for a burial-place "forever"? The early Welsh Baptists of New Britain probably buried their dead in this graveyard until they established their church, and opened a burial-place of their own, a tradition handed down from the early settlers.

Charles Huston, judge of the Supreme Court of Pennsylvania, and one of the most distinguished jurists of the country, was born in Plumstead in 1771. His grandfather came from Scotland, and he was Scotch-Irish in descent. He probably finished his studies at Dickinson college, Carlisle, where he was professor of Latin and Greek in 1792. He was studying law at the same time, and while there he completed his legal studies, was admitted to the bar in 1795, and settled in Lycoming county, cut off from Northumberland the preceding winter. Among his pupils, in the languages, was the late Chief Justice Taney, who placed a high estimate on the character of Judge Huston. In his autobiography the chief justice says of him: "I need not speak of his character and capacity; for he afterward became one of the first jurists of the country. He was an accomplished Latin and Greek scholar, and happy in his mode of instruction. And when he saw that a boy was disposed to study, his manner to him was that of a companion and friend, aiding him in his difficulties. The whole school under his care was much attached to him."

Judge Huston was commissioned justice of the Supreme Court April 7, 1826, and retired from the bench in January 1845. The last time he sat on the supreme bench at Pittsburgh he boarded privately with the sheriff, who kept house in jail. He was much annoyed by a correspondent writing to one of the newspapers, "one of our supreme judges (Huston) is in jail," which put him to the trouble of writing to his friends and explaining how he happened, on that particular occasion, to be on the wrong side of the bars. With a rough exterior, he was as gentle as a child with all its truthfulness and fidelity. After he retired from the bench he wrote a work "On Land Titles in Pennsylvania," which was published in 1849. He left his finished manuscript on his table, by the side of a candle, one evening while he went to tea. It caught fire, and when he returned he found his labor of years nearly consumed. But, with his accustomed determination, he re-wrote the work, almost entirely from memory. Judge Huston died November 10, 1849, in his seventy-eighth year. He left two daughters, one of whom married the late James Hale, member of Congress and judge of the Clearfield district, Pennsylvania, and the other is the wife of General Sturdevant, of the Luzerne county bar. (13).

Indian remained later in Plumstead than in most other parts of the county, and their settlements can be traced by their remains. There was probably a village near Curly hill, and within the last half century a number of flint arrowheads, bottle-green, blue and white, have been found there. They were two or three inches long, narrow, sharp and well-shaped, and appear to have been made by a people somewhat advanced in the arts. Indian axes, well-finished, of hard stone, not now to be found in that vicinity, have been picked up there. Also, a large stone, hollowed out, and probably used for cooking. An arrowhead, of white flint, four inches long, was found near Plumsteadville. Tradition tells us there was a village of nine huts, or lodges, of Indians near the headwaters of the southeast branch of Deep run, who remained there long after the township was settled by whites. They went to the Neshaminy to catch fish, then abundant in that stream, and paid frequent visits to the houses of the settlers on baking days, when the gift of pies and cakes conciliated their goodwill. They often dropped in on "Grandmother Hill," the ancestor of the late William Hill, of Plumstead, who lived on the farm now owned by Samuel Detweiler, on such occasions, and hardly ever went away empty-handed. The shape of arrowheads found in Plumstead differs from those of the valley of the Schuylkill, and are better fashioned. At Lower Black's Eddy, near the hotel, between the canal and river, the Indians probably manufactured their stone weapons and implements. Here are found chippings of flints, hornblend and jasper from which they were made, and by careful search an occasional spear and arrowhead, in perfect condition, is picked up. It was probably the site of an Indian village.

The last wolf killed in Bucks county was caught in Plumstead about 1800. John Smith, then a small boy, set a trap to catch foxes, but it was gone in the morning. Believing some animal had carried it off, he followed the trail and found it caught in a neighboring fence, with a large gray wolf fast in it. He went to the house and told his father, who fetched his rifle and shot him. The trap is now in possession of Charles R. Smith, of Plumstead.

The extension of what is now known as the Easton road from the county line to Dyer's mill, in 1723, was probably the first road opened in Plumstead. In 1726 Ephraim Fenton, James Shaw, Alexander Brown, John Brown, Thomas Brown, Jr., William Michener, Israel Doane, and Isaac Pennington, inhabitants of the township, petitioned the court to lay out a road "from the northeast corner of Thomas Brown's land," now Gardenville, in the most direct line to the York road, which it met near Centreville. This was a section of the Durham road, and gave the inhabitants of the upper end of the township an outlet to Newtown and Bristol. The road was probably laid out about this time. In 1729 a road was petitioned for from the upper side of the township to Dyer's mill, which now gave a continuous road to Philadelphia. In 1741 another was laid out from the Easton road above Danborough, via Sands' corner, to Centreville, coming out on the Doylestown turnpike half a mile west of Centreville, and is now called the Street road. Before that time the inhabitants of the lower part of Plumstead and the upper part of Buckingham had no direct road down to Newtown. In 1762 this road was extended to Plumsteadville, then known as James Hart's tavern. A road was laid out from Dyer's road (Easton road), at the Plumstead and Bedminster line, to Henry Krout's mill on Deep Run, in the latter township, and thence to the Tohickon, in 1750. In 1758 a road was opened from the Easton to the Durham road. About 1738 a road was laid out from Gardenville across the country to Butler's, late Shellenberger's, mill near Whitehallville, which has always been known as the Ferry road. That from Danborough to lower Black's Eddy was laid out in 1738. The first road from the Easton road to the Delaware, at Point Pleasant, was laid out in April 1738, on petition of the inhabitants of Plumstead. It ended at the river at the mouth of the Tohickon creek, on the land of Enoch Pearson, who then kept the ferry. The viewers were William Chadwick, William Michener, Robert Smith, and Cephas Child, and it was surveyed by John Chapman. The road was not put on record until 1770. It left the Easton road at Gardenville. The turnpike to Point Pleasant leaves the bed of the old road about a mile east of the Friends' meetinghouse. It is still open, but not much traveled.

The villages of Plumstead are, Gardenville, Danborough, Plumsteadville and Point Pleasant. Seventy-five years ago Gardenville was known as "Brownsville," after one of the oldest families in the township. Its tavern swung the sign of the "Plow" as early as 1760, which year William Reeder petitioned the court to recommend him to the governor for license to keep it, but the application was rejected. The old tavern-house was burned down Sunday night, April 9, 1871, and a new one built on the spot. Abraham and Mahlon Doane were buried from what was the first tavern in the place, but then a private dwelling, occupied by their aunt. It had been kept as a tavern many years before that, first by Patrick Poe, some 160* years ago. The second tavern was built by William Reeder, and is now occupied as a dwelling. It was kept in the Revolution by William McCalla, and was made a depot for forage collected from the surrounding country. A picket was stationed there. This village, situated at the crossing of the Danborough and Point Pleasant turnpike and Durham road, contains a tavern, store, mechanical shops, and about a dozen dwellings. Danborough, on the Easton road is made up of a tavern, store, the usual outfit of mechanics, and a few dwellings. It was named after Daniel Thomas, an early resident, who was twice sheriff of the county, and died early in the century. Before the postoffice was established there it was called Clover Hill, and also Danville. On the Point Pleasant turnpike, in the neighborhood of Danborough, is Nicholas graveyard, so named after Samuel Nicholas, son of the man who ran the first stagecoach from Philadelphia to Wilkesbarre. (14) Samuel kept the Danborough tavern many years, and in company with John Moore, father of Daniel T., was proprietor of the stagecoach between Philadelphia and Easton.

Plumsteadville is the most flourishing village in the township. In 1762 it was known as James Hart's tavern, and was but a crossroads hostelry. Fifty years ago it had but one dwelling, owned and occupied by John Rodrock as a public house, who was the proprietor of about 300 acres of land in that immediate vicinity. The house, a low, two- story, was recently torn down by John Shisler. After the decease of Mr. Rodrock the property was sold in lots, some of it bringing but eight dollars an acre. Forty-five years ago all the corn and fodder raised on a ten-acre field, adjoining the Rodrock farm was hauled home at two loads. The village contains about twenty-five dwellings, with tavern, store, and a brick church, Presbyterian, built in 1860. It is the seat of the extensive carriage factory of Aaron Kratz, which employs about fifty men. Point Pleasant, which lies partly in Tinicum and partly in Plumstead, will be noticed in our account of the former township. (15

The oldest house in the township is supposed to be the two-story stone dwelling called "Stand alone," on the Durham road between Hinkeltown and Gardenville. Tradition says it was the first two-story house in the township, and that when first erected people came several miles to look at it, and is thought to be from 130 to 140 years old. In its time it has undergone several vicissitudes; has been more than once repaired, occupied and then empty, but no one has lived in it for many years. Next in age is the two-story stone dwelling of John F. Meyers, occupied by Reuben W. Nash, a mile from the northeast corner of the township. It was built by Samuel Hart, great-grandfather of Josiah Hart, of Doylestown, about 1764, and in it he kept tavern and store during the Revolutionary struggle. The third oldest house is probably that of Samuel Meyers, a mile east of Plumsteadville, a two-story stone, built by John Meyers, and for the past century it has been occupied by the father, son, grandson, and great-grandson.

Plumstead having been the birthplace and home of the Doanes, and the scene of many of their exploits, a lively recollection of them has been handed down from father to son. Their rendezvous was in a wild, secluded spot on the south bank of the Tohickon two mile above Point Pleasant, where Moses was shot by Gibson, because "dead men tell no tales." It is said that Philip Hinkle put the body of the dead refugee across the pummel of his saddle, and rode with it, in company with others, to Hart's tavern, where he rumbled the corpse down on the piazza floor. (16) After they had taken a drink all round, the dead body was again put on the horse and carried to the residence of his parents. That was a sorrowful funeral. It is related that the little dog that belonged to Doane came forward and looked down in the grave after the coffin had been lowered into it, seemingly bidding a last farewell to his master. When Abraham and Mahlon Doane were hanged in Philadelphia, their father went alone to town, and had their bodies brought up in a cart, he walking all the way alongside of it. They were buried from a house that stood near Nathan Fretz's dwelling, on the east side of the Durham road at Gardenville, and interred in the woods opposite Plumstead meeting-house, then belonging to the meeting, but now to John Shaffer. When Joseph Doane came back to the county, forty odd years ago, he related that he escaped from Newtown jail by unlocking the door with a lead key he made, and then scaled the yard wall.

Until with the last half century, Plumstead did not have a good reputation for fertility. The northeast and east end of the township in particular, were noted for sterility, and although the farms were generally large, many of the owners could not raise sufficient bread for their families, nor provender for their stock. Other parts of the township were nearly as unproductive, and it came to be called "Poor Plumstead." Strangers in passing through it, laughed at the barren fields. Within fifty years, hundreds of acres of land have been sold for seven, eight, ten, and fifteen dollars per acre. The farmers commenced liming about forty-five years ago, and since then the land has rapidly improved in fertility, until the farms are the equal of those of any township in the county.

Plumstead and the neighboring townships of Hilltown, Bedminster and Tinicum have sent a considerable number of immigrants to Canada in the last ninety years, principally Mennonites. The immigration commenced in 1786, when John Kulp, Dillman Kulp, Jacob Kulp, Stoffel Kulp, Franklin Albright and Frederick Hahn, left this county and sought new homes in the country beyond the great lakes. Those who had families were accompanied by their wives and children. These pioneers must have returned favorable accounts of the country, for in a few years they were joined by many of their old friends and neighbors from Bucks. In 1799 they were followed by Reverend Jacob Moyer, Amos Albright, Valentine Kratz, Dillman Moyer, John Hunsberger, Abraham Hunsberger, George Althouse and Moses Fretz; in 1800 by John Fretz, Lawrence Hipple, Abraham Grubb, Michael Rittenhouse, Manasseh Fretz, Daniel High, Jr., Samuel Moyer, David Moyer, Jacob High, Jacob Hausser, John Wismer, Jacob Frey, Isaac Kulp, Daniel High, Jr., Philip High, Abraham High, Christian Hunsberger and Abraham Hunsberger. In 1802 Isaac Wismer and Stoffel Angeny went to Canada from Plumstead. The latter returned, but the former remained, and his son Philip is now a resident of that country. Shortly after, Reverend Jacob Gross followed his friends who had gone before. A number of the Nash family immigrated to Canada, among whom were the widow of Abraham Nash, who died near Danborough in 1823, with her three sons Joseph, Abraham, now a justice of the peace, and Jacob, and four daughters. They went about 1827 and 1828. The Bucks county families generally settled in what is now Lincoln county, near Lake Ontario, some twenty miles from Niagra Falls, but their descendants are a good deal scattered. They are generally thrifty and well-to-do. The year after the immigrants arrived is known in Canada as the "scarce year," on account of the failure of crops, and there was great suffering among them. Some were obliged to eat roots and herbs. The first immigrants are all dead, but some of them have left sons and daughters who were born here. Among the relics retained of the home of their fathers is a barrel churn of white cedar, made eighty years ago in this county by John Fretz and his daughter, and now owned by his grandchild. In addition to the names already given we find those of Gayman, Clemens, Durstein, Thomas and Zelner. Frequent visits are made between the Canadian Mennonites and their relatives in Bucks county.

Plumstead was the birthplace of John Ellicott Carver, an architect and civil engineer of considerable reputation, where he was born November 11, 1809. He learned the trade of a wheelwright at Doylestown, and when out of his time, about 1830, he went to Philadelphia. Not finding work at his own trade, he engaged as carpenter and joiner, and soon after was working at stair-building, a more difficult branch. As this required considerable mechanical and mathematical ability, and feeling his own deficiency, he commenced a course of study to qualify himself for the occupation. He devoted his leisure to studying mechanical and mathematical drawing, and kindred branches. His latent talents were developed by persevering effort, and it was not long before he commenced to give instruction in these branches in a school established for the purpose. Later he devoted his time to the study of architecture and engineering, and we next find him in the practice of these professions, at a time when their attainment was difficult, and support more precarious than at present. Mr. Carver continued the practice of his profession in Philadelphia for several years with success. He was engaged in the erection of some of the best public and private buildings of that time, and was the author of plans for one or more of the beautiful cemeteries which adorn the environs of the city. He erected gas-works in various parts of the country. His death, April 1, 1859, closed a useful career. Mr. Carver was one of the pioneers in architecture in Philadelphia, and he occupied an honorable position in the profession.

The Brownsville Persistent Horse company, for the detection of horse thieves and other villains, is a Plumstead institution. It is probably the oldest association of the kind in the county or state. [It was formally organized at Brownsville, now Gardenville, March 22, 1806, when officers were elected and a constitution and by-laws adopted. The late Abraham Chapman was president many years. At the December meeting, 1831, the company was divided into two, Eastern and Western Divisions, the Durham Road made the dividing line and Mr. Chapman chosen to preside over both Divisions. The capital stock was divided 1832, each body receiving $301.59. The reason given for the division of the company was "the inconvenience of transacting business over such an extensive territory" and because of its prosperity. The ninetieth anniversary of the original organization of the united company, was celebrated at Doylestown, March 22, 1896, with a large attendance. A union meeting was held in Lenape Hall, over which John S. Williams presided, and comprehensive sketches of the two Divisions were read by the respective secretaries, E. Watson Fell, Buckingham, and John L. Kramer, Doylestown, and by Eastburn Reeder of the original company to its division. At that time two members of the original company, who belonged to it, 1828, were living, John Betts, Warminster, formerly Solebury, in his 93rd year, and John Walker, Doylestown, 98. At the anniversary, the Eastern Division dined at the Fountain House and the Western at Clear Spring Hotel.*]

The earliest enumeration of the inhabitants of Plumstead that we have seen is that of 1746, when the population is set down at 130. Other years are given as follows: 1759, 125; 1761, 118; 1762, 153. It is probable these figures stand for taxables, instead of population, as they do not appear high enough for the latter. In 1784 the township contained 946 white inhabitants, 7 colored, and 160 dwellings. We are not able to give the census of 1790 and 1800, but have the population of each decade from the latter year to the present time, as returned to the census bureau: In 1810, 1,407; 1820, 1,790; 1830, 1,849, and 402 taxables; 1840, 1,873; 1850, 2,298; 1860, 2,710; 1870, 2,617; 1880, 2,537; 1890, 2,336; 1900, 2,119. If this enumeration be not incorrect it shows a decrease of nearly 100 from 1860 to 1870.

Among the early settlers of Plumstead, who died at an advanced age, beside those already mentioned, the following may be named: November 1, 1808, Mrs. Mary Meredith, aged 100 years, widow of William Meredith; September 13, 1805, Mrs. Dorothy Linderman, aged 90 years and 3 months, leaving 200 descendants; November 16, 1819, John Jones, aged 84; July 13, 1812, Hannah Preston, aged 94 years.

Plumstead had a Union Library company in 1807, with Adam Foulke as secretary. Joseph Stradling was a subsequent secretary, but we have not been able to learn when it was established, or anything of its history.

Morgan Hinchman, Philadelphia, was the owner of, and resided on a farm in Plumstead, in 1847. There arose some family difficulty founded on his alleged insanity, and it was decided to have him arrested and locked up in an asylum. Accordingly it was so arranged, and he was captured at the Red Lion tavern, Philadelphia, while down with marketing, and taken out to the Frankford asylum for the insane, where he was confined and not allowed to communicate with his friends. After being shut up there for six months, he scaled the wall and made his escape. He now brought suit for damages against his captors, which was tried before Judge Burnside, in Philadelphia, in the spring of 1849. A number of able lawyers was employed in the zenith if his fame. After a patient hearing, the jury awarded him $10,000 damages. It was a noted case, and created great excitement in its day. The farm passed out of the possession of Hinchman about the time of the trial, and in recent years was owned by the Heacocks.

About the middle of the last century, Anthony Fretz built a mill on the Tohickon, in Plumstead, but we do not know who owns it now, or whether it is in existence as a mill. Isaac Fretz built a mill in Tinicum about the same period, but the former was built first.

Plumstead has three post0ffices; at Danborough, but the time it was established is not know, Plumsteadville, 1840, with John L. Delp, postmaster, and at Gardenville, 1857, and John Staffer first postmaster. [There was a postoffice at "Plumstead" as early as 1800, and on November 1st, there remained in the office, the following letters, as advertised in the "Farmer's Weekly Gazette:" Francis Erwin, America, Peter Evans, Doylestown, Charles Hutchins, Do. Do., Margaret Hacket, Solebury, Morris Morris, Wheelwright, Daniel Palmer, Bucks County, John Sine, Solebury.*]

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footnotes:

End of Chapter XXIV.



History of Bucks County in the Revolution, 1774-1783

CHAPTER XL or

CHAPTER X (Vol. II), 1905 ed.

BUCKS COUNTY IN THE REVOLUTION

1774 to 1783

The story of the Revolution. -The county faithful to the colonies. -The first steps taken.* -Committee of Safety. -Men enter the army. - The campaign of 1776. -Washington cross the Delaware. -Boats collected. -Troops distributed. -Suffering of troops. -James Monroe. -Death of Captain Moore. -Sullivan joins the army. -Quarters of Washington, Greene and Knox. -Headquarters. -Attack on Trenton. -Return of army with prisoners. -Oath of allegiance. -Militia of Bucks turn out. -Continental army crosses Bucks county. -Lafayette. -British occupancy of Philadelphia. -Depredations. -Lacey's command. -Battle of Crooked Billet.* -Bucks county riflemen. -The Doanes. -The disloyal. -Confiscations. -Hardships of the war. -Revolutionary data.*

The story of the American Revolution cannot be too often told. The wisdom and patriotism of the men who led the revolt against the British crown, and the courage and endurance of those who fought the battles of the colonies, have never been surpassed. Bucks county is surrounded by localities made memorable by the struggle. Less than a day's journey will take one to the Hall of Independence where constitutional liberty was born, to the battle fields of Trenton, Princeton, Brandywine, Germantown, Red Bank, and Monmouth, and to the bleak hills of Valley Forge. On three [four*] occasions the Continental army, with Washington at it head, marched through our county, to meet the enemy on historic fields, and in the trying period of December 1776, it sought shelter on Bucks county soil behind the friendly waters of the Delaware. Three signers of the Declaration of Independence, Taylor, Clymer, and Morris, made their homes in our county, [two of them, at different times living in the same dwelling,*] and one of them was buried here.

While our county was faithful to the cause of independence, a considerable minority of her population remained loyal to the crown. When the war became inevitable, Bucks was one of the first counties to act. [At a public meeting, held at Newtown, on July 9, 1774, with Gilbert Hicks, chairman, and William Walton, clerk after a brief address by the chairman,*] Joseph Hart, [of Warminster,*] John Kidd, Joseph Kirkbride, James Wallace, Henry Wynkoop, Samuel Foulke, and John Wilkinson were appointed to represent Bucks at a meeting of all the county committees to be held in Philadelphia, [July 15*] where Mr. Hart was chairman of the committee that reported in favor of "a congress of deputies from all the colonies." [On December 15, at a meeting at Newtown, Joseph Galloway, John Kidd, Christian Minnick, John Bessonett, Joseph Kirkbride, Thomas Harvey, Thomas Jenks, Henry Krewson, Joseph Hart, James Wallace, Richard Walker, John Wilkinson, Joshua Anderson, John Chapman, Jonathan Ingham, Joseph Watson, Benjamin Fell, John Kelley, David Waggoner, Abraham Stout, Thomas Foulke, John Jamison, Jacob Strahan, James Chapman, Henry Wynkoop, Jacob Beidleman, Thomas Darrach, Robert Patterson and David Twining, were appointed a "Committee of Observation" for the county.

On January 16, 1775, a committee of safety was organized in Bucks, of which Joseph Hart was [chosen*] chairman, and John Chapman clerk, in which was reposed, for the time being, the legislative and executive authority of the county. During the winter the committee collected 252. 19s. 18d. to relieve [and support*] the people "of the town of Boston."

The Society of Friends were against the war from the beginning, because strife and bloodshed were opposed to their religious tenets, but the authority of the fathers could not restrain the sons. A number of their young men gave open sympathy to the cause of the colonies, and some entered the military service. Among the latter we find the well-known names of Janney, Brown, Linton, Shaw, Milnor, Hutchinson, Bunting, Stackhouse, Canby, Lacey, and others. The meeting "dealt with" all who forsook the faith, and the elders of Richland were visited with ecclesiastical wrath for turning their backs upon King George. We must do the Society justice, however, to say that it was consistent in its action, and that the same censure was launched against the martial Quaker, whether he entered the ranks of the king or the colonies. Nevertheless, the society did not forget the needs of charity, and down to April 1776, they had already distributed 3,900, principally in New England, and Falls monthly meeting authorized subscriptions for the suffering inhabitants of Philadelphia.

When Congress authorized an army, John Lacey, an Orthodox Quaker, of Buckingham, raised a company of 64 men for Wayne's regiment, in January 1776, whose first lieutenant was Samuel Smith, of Buckingham, Michael Ryan, the second, and John Bartley, and John Forbes, ensigns. About the same time, among those who entered the military service from this county, were Robert Sample, a scholarly man from Buckingham, a captain in Hubeley's [Hubley's*] Tenth Pennsylvania regiment, a good officer who served to the end of the war, Augustus Willet, who had served with Montgomery in Canada, in 1775, a captain in Bull's regiment, Samuel Benezett, major in the Sixth Pennsylvania regiment, and Alexander Grayden [Graydon*], of Bristol, a captain in Shee's regiment, who was made prisoner at Fort Washington. Colonel Robert Magaw, of the Sixth Pennsylvania regiment, recruited a number of his men in this county, and the roll of his killed and captured at Fort Washington gives many well-known names. (1) Adjutant Johnson, (2) of Buckingham, and Lieutenants Matthew Bennett and John Erwin, of this county, were among the captured at Fort Washington, and were kept prisoners several years. Four militia regiments were organized in the county immediately after the war commenced, and in the summer of 1776, Bucks sent a battalion of 400 men, under Colonel Joseph Hart, to the Flying camp near Amboy, whose adjutant was John Johnson, surgeon, Joseph Fenton, Jr., quartermaster, Alexander Benstead, and Captains John Folwell, William Roberts, William Hart, Valentine Opp, and John Jamison.

The campaign of 1776 was disastrous to the American arms. Washington announced to Congress, the first of December, his contemplated retreat across the Delaware, and asked that the Pennsylvania militia be ordered toward Trenton, and the boats collected on the west side of the river. About the same time he sent forward Colonel Humpton to collect all the boats and other craft along the Delaware, and General Putnam was ordered to construct rafts of the lumber at Trenton landing, while another party was sent up the river to collect all the boards and scantling on or near the river banks. Congress and the local authorities were thoroughly alarmed at the approach of the enemy. The arms of non-associators were collected to prevent them being used against the Americans, the militia were ordered to reinforce Washington, and the owners of cattle were directed to be ready to remove them at least five miles from the river.

Washington, with the main body of the army reached Trenton the 3d of December, and the heavy stores and baggage were immediately removed to this side. He crossed over with the rear guard on Sunday morning the 8th, and took quarters at the house of a Mrs. Berkley, about a mile from the river, while the troops were stationed opposite the crossings. The enemy came marching down to the river about 11 o'clock, the same morning, expecting to cross, but were much disappointed when they found the boats had been removed to the west bank. They made demonstrations to cross above and below, including a night march to Coryell's ferry, but their attempts failed. The hostile armies now lay facing each other across the Delaware, and the cause of Independence was saved. Washington, fearing the boats on the river might fall into the enemy's hands, General Greene was charged with their safety. He was at Bogart's tavern, now Righter's, Centreville, the 10th of December, whence he ordered General Ewing to send 16 Durham boats and four flats down to McKonkey's, and General Maxwell was directed to collect the boats as high up the river as there was danger of the enemy seizing them, and to place them under strong guard. Those that could not be secured were to be destroyed. Boats were to be collected at one of the ferries in Tinicum for the passage of Lee's troops, which were shortly expected to join Washington. The Legislature of New Jersey, which left their state with the army, was summoned to meet at Four Lanes Ends, now Attleborough [Langhorne*], the last Thursday in December, "to take action on the future."

Washington's next care was to guard the fords and crossings of the river to prevent the passage of the enemy. On the morning of December 9th he sent four brigades, under Lord Sterling, Mercer, Stephen, and De Fermoy, up the river, who took post between [Yardley*]ville and New Hope. Sterling was at Beaumont's, in Solebury, with three regiments, which he had under cover by the 12th, and De Fermoy was at Coryell's. General Dickinson guarded the river from Bordentown to [Yardley*]ville, General Cadwalader was posted near Bristol, and Colonel Nixon's regiment was at Dunk's ferry. Small redoubts were thrown up at various points, and each detachment was supplied with artillery. The general instructions to the troops were, if driven from their positions to retreat to the strong ground near Germantown. Washington rode up to visit Sterling on the 10th, probably returning the same day. The depot of supplies was fixed at Newtown, the county seat, because it was central, removed from the river, and easy of access from all points.

While the enemy, in his comfortable quarters on the east bank of the Delaware, was waiting for the river to freeze that he might cross over, the Continentals were shivering on the west bank. Some of the troops were actually in a suffering condition. Major Ennion Williams, of the First Pennsylvania rifles, stationed at Thompson's mill in Solebury, wrote on the 13th that his men were barefooted; a week afterward Washington thanked the committee of safety for the old clothes collected for the army, and at his request one person was appointed in each township to collect blankets for the troops. (3) Some of the officers quartered at farm houses in the vicinity of their camps, and we learn that Captain Washington, a fine-looking man, Lieutenant James Monroe of the artillery, afterward President of the United States, and Doctor Ryker were at William Neeley's in Solebury. Captain James Moore of the New York artillery, a young man of 24, died of camp fever at the house of Robert Thompson the day the army marched for Trenton, and was buried just below the mouth of Pidcock's creek, in the edge of the timber. His grave is marked by sculptured stones, and patriotic hands of the neighborhood enclosed it a few years ago by an iron railing. Marinus [Marinnus*] Willett, Jr., likewise an officer of a New York regiment, died at the house of Matthias Hutchinson in Buckingham, and was buried near the dwelling, whence his remains were removed to the family vault. He was a young man of superior intelligence and refinement, and the family nursed him with the greatest tenderness and care. His parents visited the Hutchinson's after the war, and subsequently many interesting letters passed between the families. His father was a distinguished citizen of New York, and the intimate friend of Lafayette.

The number of blankets collected was 313, and the cost 678. 12. 6. The names of the townships and collectors and number of blankets are from the original records which belong to the author.*

General Sullivan, with Lee's division in a destitute condition, joined Washington on the 20th of December, and the same day General Gates came in with the remnant of four New England regiments, 500 strong, which raised the strength of the army to about 6,000 men, although a large portion of them was unfit for service. During the month the Rev. John Rosbrugh, pastor of the Presbyterian church of Allen and Lower Mount Bethel, Northampton county, raised a battalion, and marched at its head to join the Continental army. He requested to have a military man placed in command, as he wished to act as chaplain. A few days after the battle of Trenton he was surprised by the enemy at a house near Pennington, and cruelly murdered. (4) The headquarters of the commander-in-chief and his most trusted lieutenants were at farmhouses in the vicinity of their troops, where they could be in easy communication with each other. Washington occupied the dwelling of William Keith, on the road from Brownsburg to the Eagle, Greene was at Robert Merrick's, a few hundred yards away across the fields and meadows, Sullivan was at Hayhurst's, grandfather of Mrs. Mary Buckman, of Newtown, and Knox and Hamilton at Doctor Chapman's over the Jericho hill to the north. The main body of the army was encamped in sheltered places along or near the streams, not far from the river. No doubt this position for headquarters was selected with an object, its sheltered situation, nearness to the river, and its proximity to Jericho hill, from the top of which signals could be seen a long way up and down the river when the trees were bare of leaves. Here Washington was near the upper fords of the Delaware, at which it was supposed the enemy would attempt to cross, and within a half hour's ride of the depot at Newtown.

The old mansions in which Washington, Greene, Knox and Hamilton quartered are still standing. The Keith house has undergone but little change, except where gnawed by the tooth of time. Then, as now, it was a two-story, pointed stone house, 24x28 feet, with kitchen adjoining, and built by Keith in 1763. The pine door, in two folds, set in a solid oaken frame, is garnished with a wooden lock 14x8 inches, and is the same that locked out intruders when Washington occupied the house. The interior, finished in pine, remains unchanged, and one room has never been despoiled by the painter's brush. (5) Washington probably had the main front room downstairs for an office, and slept in the chamber over it. The property was purchased by William Keith 125 [150*] years ago of the London company, contains 240 acres, and has never been out of the family. The situation, on the south side of Jericho hill, is retired and pleasantly exposed to the sun. The Merrick house, a fourth of a mile away across the fields, on the road from Newtown to Neeley's mill, is a stone dwelling, 20 feet square, with a kitchen at the west end, and the farm was bought by Samuel Merrick in 1773, and now belongs to Edward, his descendant. When Green occupied it the first floor was divided into three rooms, now all thrown into one, and the family lived in the kitchen. As the house was recently build, and not yet finished, the general caused the walls of the room he occupied to be tastefully painted, with a picture of the rising sun over the fireplace. At this time Samuel Merrick had a family of half-grown children about him, who were deeply impressed with passing events, and whose descendants are full of traditions of the times. Greene purchased the confidence of his young daughter, Hannah, by the gift of a small tea canister, which was kept in the family many years. The Rhode Island blacksmith lived on the fat of the land while quartered with this Upper Makefield farmer, devouring his flock of turkeys, and monopolizing his only fresh cow, besides eating her calf. In return he allowed the family to use sugar from the barrel bought for his own mess. At the last supper before Trenton, when Washington was the guest of Greene, the daughter Hannah waited upon the table, and kept the plate from which he ate as a memento of the occasion. The Chapman mansion, the quarters of Knox and Hamilton, and now owned by Edward Johnson, on the opposite side of Jericho a mile from Brownsburg, is in excellent condition, and is the best house of the Revolutionary period we have seen in the county. Knox occupied the first floor of the east end, then divided into two rooms, but now all in one, 25x17 feet. Hamilton, then a captain of artillery, lay sick in the back room. The late Peter G. Cattell, who lived and died on an adjoining farm, used to relate that he saw Washington at Knox's quarters.

The location of Washington's headquarters has given rise to considerable local discussion. It is claimed that he quartered at Newtown all the time his army lay on the west bank of the Delaware, but the evidence in the case is to the contrary. It does not appear that his headquarters were at Newtown until after the battle of Trenton, nor did he write a single official letter from there down to that time. To prove this we have but to trace his whereabouts from the time he crossed the Delaware, on the 8th, to his re-crossing on the 25th. On that and the following day his headquarters were at Trenton falls, where he still was on the 13th, when he wrote Congress: "I shall remove further up the river to be near the main body of my small army." He probably removed to Keith's on the 14th, where we know he was on the 15th and 16th, the latter day writing that many of his troops "are entirely naked, and most so thinly clad as to be unfit for service." The same day he and Greene rode up to Coryell's ferry. He was down at Trenton falls on the 20th, back at headquarters on the 22d, down again at camp at Trenton on the 24th, and back at headquarters on the 25th, to make the final preparations for Trenton. The headquarters of Washington do not appear to have traveled about with him, and when at other points, his letters were dated from "camp," "camp above Trenton falls," etc. When he was down at the falls on the 24th, Deputy-paymaster-general Dallam wrote him from Newtown, on public business; but if headquarters had been at Newtown the paymaster would have awaited the general's return in the evening, instead of writing him. Had he removed from the falls to Newtown on the 14th, when he advised Congress that he wished to be nearer to his small army, he would have been going in to the interior instead of up the river.

At what time Washington first conceived the plan of re-crossing the river to attack the Hessians is not known. While the troops of Gates and Sullivan had increased his force sufficient to make the attempt, we are told he could yet find but 2,400 fit for the service. All the preparations were quietly made; the troops were selected and put in readiness, and a few days before Christmas, boats were collected at Knowles' cove, two miles above Taylorsville. Bancroft says that Washington wrote the watchword, "Victory or death," on the 23d, and he writes to Colonel Reed about that time, "Christmas-day, at night, one hour before day, is the time fixed upon for our attack on Trenton." The troops selected were those of New England, Pennsylvania, and Virginia, and among the officers chosen to accompany him were Green, Mercer, Sterling, Stephen, Sullivan, Knox, Hand, Monroe, and Hamilton, all trusted leaders. General Cadwalader was to cooperate below Bristol, by crossing and attacking the enemy's post at Mount Holly. The men were provided with three days' cooked rations, and 40 rounds of ammunition. Six days before, the first number of Paine's "American Crisis" was read to every regiment in Washington's army, which greatly aroused the spirits of the troops.

Washington rode over to Merrick's, and took supper with Greene, the evening of December 24th, and no doubt Knox, Sterling, and Sullivan were there. The family was sent across the fields to spend the night at a neighbor's, so there would be no listeners to the council of war that destroyed British empire in America. A day or two before, a young man from down the river came with a message to Washington, who was put under guard until the truth should be known, and the frightened youth kept repeating to himself, "They may keep me here, but they will find it just as I told them."

While Washington was making his final preparations to strike, everything was pleasant and serene within the enemy's lines. The Hessians spent a merry Christmas at Trenton, and the officers were invited to spend the evening at the house of Abraham Hunt, (6) a suspected Tory, where they made a night of it. A surprise by the demoralized Continentals had never been thought of, and no precautions were taken against it. General Grant at Princeton had heard of the intended attack, and advised Rahl, but the latter treated it with indifference. During the evening a Bucks county Tory crossed the river with a note to the Hessian commander, informing him of the attack on the morrow, but he was too busy just then to attend to such matters, and when it was handed to him, the note was put into his pocket, where it was found, unopened, after his death. On what a slender thread hung the destinies of the country!

The troops left their camps about three P.M. the afternoon of the 25th of December, and late in the day reached the place of rendezvous, at the mouth of Knowles' creek, where the crossing was to be made, and near which a house still stands which shows marks of its occupancy by the soldiers on this memorable occasion. The morning was clear and cold, but the night set in stormy with sleet; it commenced to snow about eleven, and the river ran strong with ice. At six P.M., Washington wrote to Cadwalader that, as the night "is favorable," he was determined to "cross the river and make the attack on Trenton in the morning." Wilkinson, who joined the army on the bank of the river, tracked the men by the blood from their feet on the frozen ground. During the day Lieutenant Monroe, with a piece of artillery, was sent across the river to the Pennington road, but joined the army in its march to Trenton next morning. The troops commenced crossing about sunset, and it was three in the morning before they were all over, with the artillery. Washington called Captain Blount to take the helm of the first boat, and James Slack, a young man of 20, son of Abraham Slack, who lived a mile above Yardleyville [Yardley*], William Green and David Lanning, all acquainted with boats, assisted to ferry the army across. The troops were formed on the bank of the river into two divisions and put in march, Washington, accompanied by Sterling, Green, Mercer, and Stephen, taking the upper, while Sullivan led the right column on the river road.

The morning was cold and stormy, and the march was made in silence, the two divisions reaching the outposts of Trenton at nearly the same time. "Which way is the Hessian picket?" inquired Washington of a man chipping wood at his door, and the surly reply came back, "I don't know." You may tell," said Captain Forrest of the artillery, "for that is General Washington." The aspect of the man changed in a moment. Dropping his ax, and raising his hands to heaven, he exclaimed: "God bless and prosper your Excellency; the picket is in that house, and the sentry stands near that tree there." The attack was immediately made, to which there was but a feeble resistance, and the fruit of the morning's work was 1,040 prisoners, rank and file, 23 officers, 1,000 stands of arms and several cannon. The army, with the prisoners, re-crossed the river that afternoon, and the next day the captured Hessians were at Newtown, the officers quartered at the taverns, and the soldiers confined in the church and jail. There is a difference of opinion as to where the prisoners crossed the river, the accepted account stating that it was at McKonkey's ferry, while an equally reliable authority tells us they were crossed at Johnson's ferry, probably lower down, the officers remaining in the small ferry-house until morning, when Colonel Wheeden [Weedon*] conducted them to Newtown. (7) We can hardly believe that Washington would risk his prisoners in a flank march of nine miles when it was so evidently his policy to put the river between them and the enemy as quickly as possible. No doubt he crossed them at the nearest ferry where there were boats to carry them over. The officers signed their parole at Newtown on the 30th, and were conducted to Philadelphia, meanwhile visiting Lord Sterling, whom some of them had met while a prisoner on Long Island and calling to pay their respects to Washington, with whom four were invited to dine. (8) The rank and file were taken to Lancaster. Among the prisoners were a Hessian surgeon of middle age and a young English officer, who quartered at Doctor Jonathan Ingham's, near New Hope. The latter died of pleurisy, from a cold, but his body was afterward disinterred and taken to England. Washington came direct from Trenton to Newtown, arriving the evening of the 26th or the morning of the 27th, and took quarters in the house of John Harris, west of the creek, lately torn down by Alexander German, while the troops doubtless returned to their former camps and quarters. Washington remained at Newtown until the 29th, when he re-crossed the river with the same troops he had with him on the 26th, and inaugurated the skillful campaign that nearly relieved New Jersey of the enemy. The morning of his departure he presented to Mrs. Harris a silver teapot, which was kept in the family many years, but finally made into spoons. Lord Sterling was left in command at Newtown, the exposure in the recent attack on Trenton having aggravated his rheumatism and rendered him unfit for active duty. We have met with many traditions in connection with these operations, but few of them, on investigation, bear the light. Lossing tells, as sober history, that Mercer, whose headquarters he fixes at Keith's, related to Mrs. Keith the day he left for Trenton, a remarkable dream he had the night before, of being overpowered by a great black bear, and as he was shortly afterward killed at Princeton, it was taken as a warning of his death, but, as Mrs. Keith died in 1772 we are justified in saying that Lossing's story is a myth. During these trying events the militia of Bucks county were frequently called into service, but they did not always respond as cheerfully as the good cause demanded. At the close of December 1776, when ordered to turn out, 49 men of Captain John Jamison's company, of Warwick, refused to march, 22 of Thomas Wier's, of Warrington, 67 of William McCalla's, of Plumstead, 39 of Robert Sample's, of Buckingham, and 22 of Captain Lott's company, of Solebury. General Putnam states that after the battle of Princeton some militia companies deserted bodily, and he mentions one case in which the whole company ran away except "a lieutenant and a lame man."

The active scenes of warfare were now removed from our county. When the state government was put into operation under the constitution of 1776, the Legislature took steps to strengthen the hands of the civil authorities. June 13, 1777, an act was passed compelling every inhabitant to subscribe an oath of allegiance, which met with general compliance. 3,250 took the oath in all, of which 2,874 subscribed it while the war was in progress. The first oath was taken by William Folwell, of Southampton, before Joseph Hart, a justice of Warminster, and before whom 690 subscribed. Among the subscribers we find the well-known names of Hart, Cornell, Bennet, Kroesen, Vanhorne, Dungan, Davis, Thompson, Shaw, Morris, James, Chapman, Foulke, Kulp, Overpeck, Transue, Fulmer, Beans, Jamison, Dyer, Hogeland, Ingham, Applebach, Harvey, and many others whose names are now prominent in the county. The oath of allegiance was followed by the test-oath, with pains and penalties, and the refusal to subscribe it disabled persons following certain pursuits, among others that of teaching school. The violent opposition of the Friends caused it repeal. The county courts met the first time September 9, 1777, when Henry Wynkoop, of Newtown, the presiding justice, delivered an able charge to the grand jury, appropriate to the new order of things. When spring opened it was thought the Delaware would again become the scene of conflict, in the attempt of the enemy to reach Philadelphia. General Arnold was put in command of the river the 14th of June, and all the fords and crossings were placed in a state of security. At the request of Washington, President Wharton of this State caused accurate drafts of the river and its approaches to be made; and boats were collected at New Hope and above for the passage of the army. During the spring and summer several calls were made upon the Bucks county militia. In April she furnished 500 men for the camp of instruction at Bristol, and in July the battalions of Colonel John Gill and Lieutenant-colonel McMaster were ordered to Billingsport, New Jersey, and received the thanks of the authorities for their good conduct. In September every able-bodied man was ordered to turn out, and those who had not arms were to take axes, spades, and every kind of entrenching tools. The county frequently furnished wagons, and at one time her farmers supplied the Continental army with 4,000 bushels of grain for horse feed. [An old court record shows that a draft was made on Bucks county for 50 wagons, but the absence of the date prevents us knowing when. It might possibly have been in some of the previous Indian disturbances. The warrants issued were as follows:

          2 Bristol township
          3 Buckingham
          2 Bensalem
          2 Bedminster
          2 Falls
          3 Middletown
          2 Lower Makefield
          2 Milford
          2 Upper Makefield
          2 Hilltown
          2 Newtown
          2 New Britain
          2 Northampton
          2 Nockamixon
          2 Durham
          2 Plumstead
          2 Richland
          2 Rockhill
          2 Southampton
          2 Springfield and Haycock
          2 Tinicum
          1 Warminster
          1 Warrington
          2 Warwick
          2 Wrightstown.
This was no new thing in colonial times.*]

When the British sailed south from New York, in July 1777, the Continental army again crossed the Delaware into Bucks county. Washington, with Green's division, reached Coryell's ferry the night of the 29th, and one brigade crossed over before morning. General Stephen, with two divisions, crossed at Howell's ferry, four miles above, and Lord Sterling at Trenton. The troops which crossed at Coryell's and Howell's, composing the bulk of the army, were put in march down the York road the morning of the 31st of July, Washington setting out for Philadelphia at the same time, where we find him the 3d of August, and whence he joined the army at Germantown before the 6th. On the supposition that the enemy had returned to New York, the army retraced its steps and [we find it at the Neshaminy, on the York road just above the present Hartsville, then the Cross Roads,*] on Sunday evening, the 10th of August. Here it was halted by an [order of Congress.*] It remained encamped on the Neshaminy hills 13 days, and until it was known that the enemy was about to land at the head of the Elk.

[While the Continental army lay at Neshaminy its strength was about 11,000, composed of four divisions, Greene's, Sterling's, Stephen's and Lincoln's, divided into eight brigades, Maxwell, Scott, Weedon, Muhlenburg, Wayne, Woodford, Nash and Conway. The main body was encamped on the slopes of Carr's hill facing southwest, the rest occupying the Jamison and Ramsey farms a mile down the Bristol road, and here the cattle were slaughtered. The Neshaminy church was probably used for an hospital. The location made an admirable camping ground, surrounded by a fertile and healthy country and peopled by a loyal Scotch-Irish population. The officers on duty here were the elite of the Continental army. While Lafayette had witnessed previously a review of the army near Germantown, there is no evidence he reported for duty prior to the Neshaminy encampment. Here he first sat at the council board and took an active part in military duty. Washington had his headquarters in what was then the "Moland" house, a stone dwelling, still standing on the east side of the York road 100 yards north of the bridge over Neshaminy. On the opposite side of the road was the whipping post. At the time the "Cross Roads" had three or four dwellings, and a tavern on the northwest corner, opposite the present one, and the general landmarks were the same as present.*]

The army was again put in motion down the York road, on the morning of the 23d, and the next day marched through Philadelphia and across the Schuylkill to meet the enemy on the disastrous field of Brandywine. The approach of the British army caused great alarm in this section of country, which Washington's defeat and the fall of Philadelphia greatly increased. Lafayette, who was wounded at Brandywine, was taken to Chester and thence conveyed up the Delaware to Bristol, en route for Bethlehem. He stayed overnight at Bristol at the public house of Simon Betz, and was waited on by his niece, Mrs. Charles Bessonette. From Bristol, Lafayette traveled up the Durham road in an easy carriage to his destination, stopping on his way at Four Lanes End, Newtown, Stoffel Wagner's tavern, built, 1752, a mile above Hellertown and other points. At Bethlehem he occupied the house owned in recent years by Ambrose Rauch, on Main street west of the Sun Inn, and torn down 1872.

During the British occupancy of Philadelphia the country between the Schuylkill and the Delaware was debatable ground, and was traversed by armed parties of both armies. The enemy made frequent incursions into Bucks. On the night of February 18, 1777, the cavalry companies of Hovenden and Thomas, both Bucks county Tories, made a raid on Newtown, where they captured a considerable quantity of cloth being made up for the Continental army, and made prisoners of Major Murray, three other officers and 26 soldiers of the guard, besides killing and wounding nine. On another occasion, hearing of a drove of cattle en route for the hungry Continentals at Valley Forge, the enemy's horse pounced upon them and captured the whole herd, and in April a party of horse went up to Bristol and captured Colonel Penrose and several other officers. They made frequent excursions in armed barges up the Delaware to plunder. In one of these they threw a six-pound shot in the house of Peter Williamson, father of the late Mahlon Williamson, of Philadelphia, which stood on the site of Beverly, New Jersey. It passed just over the cradle of the infant Mahlon and rolled harmlessly on the floor. On another occasion they came up the river and burnt the handsome mansion of Colonel Joseph Kirkbride, of Falls, a warm friend of the colonies. This debatable ground was entrusted to the command of General John Lacey, but he never had sufficient force to protect it from the incursions of the enemy, or to prevent the disaffected going into the city. The high price paid by the enemy for all kinds of produce appealed strongly to the cupidity of the Tories, who crossed the line with their wallets filled with butter, eggs, etc., at every opportunity. Many were caught in this disreputable and illegal traffic, and among them is mentioned one Tyson, of Bedminster, whose horse and marketing were confiscated while he was tied to a tree, still standing near Branchtown, and battered with his own eggs. (See illustration of Col. Joseph Kirkbride)

General Lacey frequently had his headquarters at Doylestown and this was his depot of stores. We find him here March 19, 1778, and copy the following from his order book: "Parole, Salem; countersign, Wilmington; officer of the day tomorrow, Major Mitchel; detail, three captains, three sergeants, four corporals and 48 privates. Officers of all grades are cautioned not to quarter out of camp." Lacey and his men did not want for the good things of life while soldiering in Bucks county. The receipts of the purchasing commissary cover payments for veal, beef, flour, mutton, whiskey, not a rifled article, turkeys and fowls. His troops, while encamped at the Crooked Billet, now Hatboro, were surprised by the British at daylight May 1, 1778, and it was only by boldness and good management that he was able to prevent the capture of his entire force. Spies, well acquainted with the situation, had given General Howe full information, who sent out strong detachments of cavalry and infantry. They took possession of all the roads, closing in upon Lacey, his camp was almost surrounded before their presence was known. Extricating his command he retreated across Warminster toward the Neshaminy. When it became evident that the enemy intended to evacuate Philadelphia, Washington requested the militia of Bucks county to hang upon his flanks in his march through New Jersey, and General Lacey (9) ordered the battalions of Colonels Keller, Roberts, Toms, and McIlvain to turn out for this service. [Colonel Joseph McIlvain died February 17, 1787, and was buried in St. James's yard, Bristol.*]

[In the spring of 1858, the late Safety Maghee, of Northampton township, then 93 years old, related to the author what he had seen in connection with the battle of the Crooked Billet, when a boy of 13. He said:

"In 1778 I was living with my uncle, Thomas Folwell, Southampton, in the house where Cornell Hobensack lives, on the road from Davisville to Southampton church. On the morning of the battle I heard the firing very distinctly and a black man named Harry and myself concluded we would go and see what was going on. We started from the house and went directly toward where the firing was. When we came near where Johnsville now stands, we heard a heavy volley which brought us to a halt. The firing was in the woods. The British were in pursuit of our militia and chased them along the road that leads from Johnsville to the Bristol road, and also through the fields from the Street road to the Bristol road. They overtook the militia in the woods at the corner of the Street road and the one that leads across to the Bristol road. When the firing had ceased, we continued on to the woods, where we found three wounded militiamen near the road. They appeared to have been wounded by the sword, and were much cut and hacked. When we got to them they were groaning greatly. They died in a little while and I understood were buried on the spot. They appeared to be Germans. We then passed on and in a field nearby we saw two horses lying dead. They were British. One of them was shot in the head and the gun had been put so near the hair was scorched. While we were on the field, Harry picked up a cartouch box that had been dropped or torn off the wearer. Shortly after we met the militia returning and when they saw the black fellow with the cartouch box they became very indignant; charged him with robbing the dead, and took it away from him. These dead horses were on the farm of Colonel Joseph Hart. Soon after this we returned home. The last man was killed on the British road at the end of the road that comes across from Johnsville. A British officer, who was badly wounded at the battle of the Billet, was taken to the house of Samuel Irvin, who lived nearby. His wounds were dressed there and he afterward returned with the troop to Philadelphia."*]

Washington put the Continental army in march from Valley Forge, after a six months' residence upon its bleak hills, the 18th of June, to pursue the enemy in his retreat toward New York. General Lee, with six brigades, led the advance, via Doylestown to New Hope, where he crossed the night of the 20th, and Washington encamped at Doylestown the same evening with the main body. The weather was very stormy, and the army remained here until the next afternoon, occupying three encampments: on the south side of S tate street, west of Main, on the ridge east of the Presbyterian church, and along the New Hope pike east of the borough mill. Washington pitched his tent near the dwelling of Jonathan Fell, (10) now John G. Mann's farmhouse, and General Lafayette quartered at the house of Thomas Jones, New Britain, whose best bed was a little too short for the tall young Frenchman. The army was accompanied by some warriors of the Seneca nation, seeking the release of a captured chief, and attended by some friendly Oneidas and Tuscaroras. The army resumed its march for the Delaware the afternoon of the 21st, and crossed at New Hope the next day. While passing Paxson's corner a soldier shot the button from the top of a young pine, and the wound can still be seen [until the tree blew down a few years ago.*]

From this time forward the stirring and active scenes of the war were removed to distant parts of the country. General Lacey was still in command in this county, keeping a watchful eye on the disaffected, now and then making an important arrest. In the summer of 1780 Bucks county sent her quota of militia to the camp at Trenton, in view of an attack upon New York, and the following year, when Philadelphia was again threatened, there was a concentration of troops at Newtown, under General James Irvine. In September 1781 the French and American armies, in march to meet Cornwallis in Virginia, passed through the lower end of the county. They crossed the Delaware at Trenton and the neighboring ferried on the morning of the 1st, and the same afternoon passed the Neshaminy at the rope ferry, encamping at the Red Lion in Bensalem that evening, and the next day marched through Philadelphia.

The robbery of the county treasury at Newtown by the Doanes and their confederates, in the fall of 1781, was one of the exciting events of the day. John Hart, then treasurer, lived in the house that lately belonged to Abraham Bond, in the lower part of the village. Early in the evening Moses Doane rode through the town to see if the situation were favorable, and about ten o'clock the house of the treasurer was surrounded, and Mr. Hart made prisoner. While sentinels kept watch outside, and over the treasurer, others of the gang ransacked the house. Then, obtaining the keys of the treasurer's office, and one of them putting on Mr. Hart's hat, and carrying his lighted lantern, as was the treasurer's wont, the robbers went to th office, where they stole all the public money to be found. They got, in all, 735. 17s. 19-1/2d. in specie, and 1,307 in paper. That night they divided the spoils at the Wrightstown schoolhouse.

The story of the Doanes is both romantic and tragic. They were the sons of respectable Quaker parents, of Plumstead, and during the war, became celebrated for their evil deeds. These five brothers were men of remarkable physical development, tall strong, athletic, and all fine horsemen. Before the war they were men of good reputation, and it is said proposed to remain neutral. Living in a Scotch-Irish settlement, faithful to a man to the cause of Independence, the young Doanes were not allowed to take a middle course, and soon they espoused the cause of the crown, which engendered a bitter feeling between them and their Whig neighbors. They began their career by robbing and plundering in the neighborhood, gradually extending their field of operations in this and neighboring counties. They finally became outlaws with a price upon their heads. They were the terror of the country, and occupied themselves in stealing horses, plundering houses, etc., but we believe the crime of murder was never imputed to them. They had many narrow escapes, and now and then some one of them fell into the hands of the authorities, but generally managed to escape. Joseph broke jail while awaiting trial at Newtown, and escaped to New Jersey, and after teaching school awhile, fled to Canada. Near the close of the war Abraham and Mahlon were apprehended in Chester county and hanged at Philadelphia. Moses, the leader of the outlaw brothers, met a more tragic end. In the latter part of the summer of 1783, the Doanes went to the house of one Halsey, living in a cabin on Geddes run, Plumstead, and asked for something to eat, and Halsey sent his son to a neighboring mill to get flour. On the miller hesitating, the boy said the Doanes were at his father's house and they would pay. The miller sent word to a vendue in the neighborhood, that the Doanes were at Halsey's, when a party of 14 armed and mounted men, led by William and Samuel Hart and Major Kennedy, started to capture them. The cabin was surrounded. The two Harts, Kennedy, and a Grier were selected to enter it, and on approaching, saw through the chinks of the logs the Doanes eating at a table, with their guns standing near. William Hart opened the door, commanded them to surrender, when they seized their arms and fired. One of their bullets knocked a splinter from Grier's gun which struck Kennedy in the back, giving him a mortal wound. Hart seized Moses Doane, threw him down and secured him, when Robert Gibson rushed into the cabin and shot Doane in the breast, killing him instantly. The other two brothers escaped. Colonel Hart carried the body of the dead outlaw to his residence, and laid it on the kitchen floor until morning, when he sent it to his unhappy father. Joseph Doane spent the balance of his life in Canada, where he died at an advanced age. Sixty years ago he returned to the county to claim a small inheritance, when he met and became reconciled with the Shaws and other families who had felt the wrath of himself and brothers during the troublous days of the Revolution.

The marines on board Commodore Barney's ship, the Hyder Ali, were Bucks country riflemen, and behaved in the most gallant manner in the desperate action with the General Monk, April 26, 1782. The life of the Commodore, written by his widow, says: "One of these brave fellows, who was much better acquainted with the use of his rifle than with the rules of subordination, called out to Captain Barry, with a coolness of tone and familiarity of manner that evinced anything but intended disrespect, "Captain, do you see that fellow with the white hat? and firing as he spoke, Captain Barry saw the poor fellow 'with the white hat' make a spring at least three feet from the deck, and fall to rise no more. 'Captain,' continued the marksman, 'that's the third fellow I've made hop.' It was found that every man of the enemy who was killed by the small arms was shot in the breast or head, so true and deadly was the aim of the Bucks county riflemen."

A number of persons in this county joined the British army and drew their swords against their country. Among these were Edward Jones, of Hilltown, who raised a company of cavalry in that township and New Britain; Evan Thomas, of the same township, commanded a company in Simcoe's Rangers, was in the attack on Lacey at the Crooked Billet, went with Arnold to Virginia in 1780, and was among the prisoners at Yorktown. After the war he removed his family to New Brunswick, where he died. Joseph Swift, who was known as handsome but stuttering Joe Swift, son of John Swift, of Bensalem, who was an officer of the British army before the war, re-entered the service as captain of horse in the Pennsylvania Loyalists. He lost his estate, and died in Philadelphia in 1826. Thomas Sandford, who commanded a company of Bucks county dragoons, was a captain in the British Legion, and Walter Willett, of Southampton, was also a lieutenant of cavalry in the same corps. Enoch, a son of Cadwallader Morris, and Thomas Lewis, of New B ritain, joined the British army in 1778, and settled in Nova Scotia. A number of others entered the military service of the enemy, but they did not reach distinction enough to be remembered in history. Joseph Galloway, of this county, one of the most prominent men in the province, joined the enemy, but never took up arms against his countrymen.

Under the confiscation act of March 6, 1778, a number of persons in this county lost their estates for remaining loyal to the British crown. Among these may be mentioned:
          Gilbert Hicks and Joseph Paxson of Middletown
          John Ellwood and Andrew Allen of Bristol
          Samuel Biles and Walter Willett of Southampton
          Richard Swanwick, John Meredith and Owen Roberts of New Britain
          Evan Thomas, Jonathan Jones and Edward Jones of Hilltown
          Peter Perlie of Durham
          John Reid and John Overholtz [Overholz*] of Tinicum.

Some of these estates were valuable, that of John Reid containing 1,412 acres. A considerable amount of money was realized to the treasury from these sales. A record in the surveyor-general's office, Harrisburg, contains the names of 26 Bucks countians who were required to purge themselves of treason to prevent confiscation, but probably only few of them were proceeded against. The commissioners for this county under, the confiscation act, were George Wall, Jr., Richard Gibbs, John Crawford, and Benjamin Siegel [Siegels*].

The war bore with great severity upon those who would not take up arms, or submit to all the unjust exactions of the period. Among others, Joseph Smith, a son of Timothy, of Buckingham, the inventor of the iron mould-board, and a consistent Friend, was committed to Newtown jail. He whiled away his prison hours in whittling out models of his iron mould-board plows, which he threw over the jail wall. They excited so much interest among the military officers, to whom they were shown, that they asked to see the ingenious prisoner, and were much interested in his explanations of the benefits the iron mould-board would confer upon the farmer. He lived to see his anticipations fully realized. The case of Thomas Watson, a Friend, of Buckingham, was one of still greater hardship. Hay had become exceedingly scarce in the winter of 1778 and 1779, by reason of some detachments of troops being encamped in his vicinity. He saved a stack which he intended to distribute among his less fortunate neighbors, but which the landlord at Centreville wanted to buy with worthless Continental money. Mr. Watson refused to sell, but told the landlord if he would come the day the stack was opened he would receive a share of it without price. This did not suit this pretended patriot. Find ing out the price of the hay, he offered it to Mr. Watson, who refused it. The landlord immediately caused his arrest, on the charge that he had refused to sell his hay for paper money, and he was confined in the Newtown jail. He was tried by court martial, sentenced to be hanged, and all efforts to obtain his pardon failed. At last Mr. Watson's wife appeared before Lord Sterling, then in command, at a time when his nature was softened by good cheer, provided purposely by the landlady of the tavern where he boarded, and her appeal was more successful. He withstood her eloquence as long as he could, when he raised her to her feet and said, "Madam, you have conquered, I must relent at the tears, and supplication of so noble and so good a woman as you. Your husband is saved."

[The following data, from the Pennsylvania Archives, first series, vols. 4, 5 and 6, may assist the student of Revolutionary history in finding what he may be looking for:
          Vol. 4, page 702, 9, 25: Letters of Henry Wynkoop, Bucks county, to Committee of Safety, 1776; Saltpeter, Bucks county powder mills, resolutions of Bucks county on war measures, 1776.
          Vol. 5, page 31: Tory election, Newtown, Bucks county, 1776.
          Page 83: Resolution of Real Whigs, 1776.
          Page 95: General Cadwalader at Trenton Ferry, 1776.
          Page 108: Bristol Camp, Bucks county militia, 1776.
          Page 115: Resolved by Council of Safety, that General Washington issue orders for militia of Bucks county forthwith to join his army.
          Page 125: Value of Penn. Currency.
          Page 157: Letter of Lord Sterling, Newtown, January 4, 1777.
          Page 166, 175, do, January 6 and 8, 1777.
          Page 321: Colonial Court books taken from Isaac Hicks, Newtown, February 22, 1777. First and second class militia, Bucks county, directed to camp at Bristol, 1777.
          Page 331: Great difficulty in securing substitutes.
          Page 334: one-half of quota made up of substitutes.
          Page 369: First class at Coryell's Ferry.
          Page 375: Report on fording places in the Delaware.
          Page 405: Driving of cattle, June 25, 1777.
          Page 441: Fords on the Delaware.
          Pages 459-471: Militia ordered to Chester to meet expected approach of General Howe.
          Page 463: Bucks county militia at Billingsport.
          Page 530: General Conway writes from Warminster camp, Bucks county, August 17, 1777.
          Page 545: Driving of cattle.
          Page 549: Third class militia called.
          Page 558: Militia returns from Billingsport.
          Page 615: The third and fourth class called out.
          Page 711: Price of wheat, Indian corn, rye, beef, pork, etc.

          Vol. 6, page 100: Letters from Major-General Armstrong to President Wharton, Lancaster, concerning usefulness of militia,
          Page 116: Proclamation of Washington; defense of counties of Philadelphia and Bucks during General Howe's occupancy of Philadelphia.
          Pages 92, 107, 146, 187: Goods (clothing) seized in Great Swamp, Bucks county.
          Page 227: Col. Coates hopes Friends may turn out in defense of their country.
          Pages 261-62-63: Capture of Colonel Coates; inroads of British in Bucks county.
          Page 265: Militia reduced to 60 men.
          Page 266: Prisoners captured up Newtown road.
          Page 280: Constant alarms in lower part of Bucks county.
          Page 285: Raid of Tory Lighthorse into Bucks county.
          Page 291: Washington on the raid.
          Page 323: Resolution of Congress, 1778, to organize troop of lighthorse.
          Page 595: Renewal of ravages of Tories on Bucks county.
          Pages 596-7-9, 600, 605: Examination of Garret Vansant, etc., June 15, 1778. The author is indebted to Mr. Winfield L. Margerum, Philadelphia, for this interesting data.*]

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Footnotes:

  • (1) Names of officers and men from Bucks county, in Colonel Magaw's regiment killed and captured at Fort Washington: John Beatty, major, Warminster John Priestley, lieutenant, Bristol William Crawford, lieutenant, Warrington Isaac Van Horne, ensign, Solebury John Wallace, sergeant, Warrington John Murray, sergeant, Bristol Robert Forsyth, corporal, Warrington Richard Hay, private, New Britain John Stevens, private, Bristol John Banks, private, New Britain Thomas Bell, private, Bristol Daniel Gulliou, private, Warwick, died of wounds Joshua Carrigan, private, Bristol, died in prison Ralph Boon, private, Bristol, Ralph Aiken, private, Warminster William Jenkins, private, Warwick Timothy Knowles, private, Northampton Robert Frame, private, Bristol, died in prison William Huston, private, Warwick Joseph Bratton, private, Bristol, James McNiel, Bensalem, sergeant John Evans, sergeant, Bensalem Daniel Kenedy, sergeant, Bristol William Kent, private, Bensalem Cornelius Foster, private, Bensalem John Bell, private, Bensalem Edward Murphy, private, Bensalem Andrew Know, private, Bensalem Halbert Douglass, private, Warrington John Lalbey, private, Solebury Edward Hovenden, ensign, Newtown John Coxe, sergeant, Bensalem Thomas Stevenson, sergeant, Newtown John Sproal, corporal, Newtown John Eastwick, corporal, Newtown Richard Lott, private, Plumstead Dennis Ford, private, Middletown John Murphy, private, Falls Thomas Varden, private, Glassworks Richard Arkle, private, Wrightstown Henry Aiken, private, Wrightstown Charles A. Moss, private, Northampton John Dunn, private, Falls John Kerls, private, Falls John Ketchum, private, Bensalem Hugh Evans, private, Southampton, died in prison George Clark, fifer, Biles Island (enlisted) Reading Beatty, ensign, Warminster.
    [The author has a piece of the discharge of Andrew Stull, of Nockamixon, a soldier of the Revolution, but we do not know when nor where he served. He died January 13, 1846, at the age of 95 years and 27 days.*]
  • (2) A statement in Henry Cabot Lodge's "Life of Washington," says he was six feet and six and one-half inches tall, wore shoes eleven and boots thirteen inches, and could hold a loaded musket at arms length in one hand and fire it; made, we believe, on the statement of a soldier in the Continental army, who was near him, in 1776, shortly before crossing the Delaware. We have seen no account of it elsewhere.*
  • (3) The following were the number of blankets collected and by whom: Buckingham, collector, John Robinson, 20 Tinicum, William Wilson, 20 Hilltown, James Armstrong, 16 Northampton, Gilliam Cornell, 18 Wrightstown, Joseph Sacket, 8 Lower Makefield, George Bennett, 9 Upper Makefield, Isaiah Keith, 13 Southampton, Leonard Krewson, 12 Lower Milford, John Jamison, 10 Solebury, John Sebring, 13 Warwick, Charles McMicken, 12 Newtown, Robert Ramsey, 10 Warminster, William Carr, 10 Falls, Lambert Pitner, 12 Springfield, William Thomas, 6 New Britain, David Davis, 18 Rockhill, Abraham Kechline, 13 Richland, John Fries, 13 Durham, George Knight, 4 Warrington, Abraham Hollis, 6 Bedminster, John Shaw, 12 Plumstead, Joseph Greir, 12 Bristol Borough, Robert Patterson, 14 Bensalem, Jacob Vandergrift, 15 Nockamixon, Samuel Wilson, 12 Middletown, Anthony Rue, 13
  • (4) The late Rev. Robert D. Morris says that Rosbrugh was killed on the northeast branch of the Assanpink the day of the battle of Trenton. This doubtless refers to the action of January 2, 1777, when Cornwallis made the attack on Washington at Trenton.*
  • (5) The above description of the Keith house is as we knew it 30 years ago, and described in the first edition of the "History of Bucks County," but since then the despoiler has been about. It has been modernized and several changes made inside and out, but the walls are the same. The front door is no longer fastened by the wooden lock and were Washington's spirit to come back it would not recognize the house.*
  • (6) General Stryker, in his exhaustive history of the "Battles of Trenton and Princeton," says: "Abraham Hunt was the rich merchant of the village, and its postmaster. He has been called a non-committal man. Patriots, it is said, feared he was not altogether true to the cause, for they knew their country's enemies ofttimes partook of his bounty. He has frequently been spoken of in history as a Tory, but it is never asserted that he took any active part against his county. On the contrary, at this very time, he held the commission of Lieutenant-Colonel in Colonel Isaac Smith's first regiment, Hunterdon county militia, and the State records do not show any stain upon his honor as an officer and a soldier. It has never been stated that he ever claimed protection from the British. His property does not appear to have been confiscated, which would have been done had he been a Tory, and he certainly was in the full enjoyment of it to the date of his death, long after the close of the war. He also retained his office as postmaster of the village under the national government for many years." This testimony seems conclusive that Abraham Hunt was a friend of the Colonies. It is probable Hunt was in the secret of Washington's intended attack, and the Christmas party may have been a "set up" job on the Hessians.
  • (7) Johnson's ferry was below Yardley, about half way to Trenton, and little, if any, used at the present time.*
  • (8) December 27, 1776 - "Here we are back in our camp with the prisoners and trophies. Washington is keeping his promise; the soldiers (Hessians) are in the Newtown meeting-house and other buildings. He has just given directions for tomorrow's dinner. All the captured Hessian officers are to dine with him. He bears the Hessians no malice, but says they have been sold by their Grand Duke to King George and sent to America, when if they could have their own way they would be peaceably living in their own country." From Diary of an officer on Washington's staff.
  • (9) Sally Wister has the following to say, in connection with General Lacey, in her "Journal" of June 1778: "No new occurrence to relate. Almost adventureless, except General Lacey's riding by and his fierce horse disdaining to go without showing his airs, in expectation of drawing the attention of the mill girls, in order to glad his master's eyes. Ha! ha! ha! One would have imagined that vanity would have been buried with the shades of North Wales. Lacey is tolerable, but, as ill luck would order it, I had been busy and my auburn ringlets were much disheveled, therefore I did not glad his eyes, and can not set down on the list of honors received, that of a bow from Brigadier-General Lacey." As Lacey was a young and handsome man, and single, doubtless the young ladies were pleased to have a bow from him.*
  • (10) While Washington quartered at Jonathan Fell's, he regulated the movements of the troops by the tall clock that stood in the hall or adjoining room. This clock has fortunately come down to the present generation, and keeps the same accurate time as 125 years ago. It is owned by William Jenks Fell, great-grandson of Jonathan; has always been in the family, and now stands in the hall of his residence at Faulkland, Delaware. The clock was presented by Dr. John Watson, son of Thomas Watson, the original settler, to his daughter Elizabeth on her marriage to John Fell, 8 mo. 1738, and, by her will, bequeathed to her son, Jonathan Fell, the owner when Washington was his guest, 1778.*

End of Chapter XL [or XI 1905 edition*]



History of Bucks County Associators

BUCKS COUNTY ASSOCIATORS

First Battalion
List of officers of the First Battalion of Bucks County Associators, 1775.
Colonel, Joseph Kirkbride; lieutenant colonel Alexander Anderson; first major, Joseph Penrose; second major, Joseph McIlvain, of Bristol.

Newtown Company, August 21, 1775
Captain, Francis Murray; first lieutenant, Robert Ramsey; second lieutenant, Joseph Griffith.
Privates -- Henry Vanhorn, John Johnston, Andrew McMinn, John Eastrick, Thomas Huston, Archibald McCorkel, Ewan Scott, James McCoy, Nathaniel Twining, Patrick Hunter, William Bateman, Charles McLaughlin, John Randall, Robert McDowell, John Price, John Vanhorn, John Dalton, James Huston, David McMorris, Thomas Yardley, John Atkinson, Jr., Samuel Tolbert, James Shirkey, Robert Watson, Anthony Teate, John Gregg, John Roney, Lintes Davids, Joseph Dyer, John Reeder, Solomon Park, William Murfits, Abraham Johnston, Henry Lowell, Peter Laffertson, Abram Lowell, Joshua Vanhorn, John Murfits, James Allen, John Bailey, Christian Vanhorn, George Johnston, George Hopkins Burden, Francis Harrison, Thomas Lowrie, Abraham Stark, Thomas Hamey, John Moody.

Bensalem Company, August 19, 1775
Captain, John Jarvis; first lieutenant, Nathaniel Vansant; second lieutenant, Jacob Vandegrift; ensign, Jacob Vandegrift, Jr.; clerk, William McKissack; sergeants, John Harrison, James Miller, Jacob Johnson, Joseph Cox; corporals, William Albertson, James McNeal, David Sipler, George Albertson.
Privates -- John Kidd, Esq., James Benezett, Richard Gibbs, Alexander Anderson, John Vandegrift, Sr., Joseph Penrose, William Smith, James Howe, Jacob Vandegrift, Jr., John Harrison, John Bennett, Leonard Vandegrift, Richard Shees, William McKissack, Daniel Stalls, Thomas Foster, Adam Weaver, John Paulivit, Lawrence Vandegrift, Isaac Johnson, Henry Whiteman, William Brodnax, Harmon Titus, Abraham Larew, Nathaniel Vansant, Peter Vansant, Jacob Horton, Jacob Vandegrift, Jr., James Miller, Isaac Larew, Thomas Sherman, Jacob Jackson, William DeCoursey, David Walton, Henry Bouser, Samuel Benezett, Lawrence Johnson, Leonard Vandegrift, Thomas Krodden, Benjamin Swerns, Cornelius Foster, Serick Titus, John Jaoice, Joseph Clerk, John Commons, Joseph Cox, John Stoneman, Joseph Allen, Isaac Anderson, James Vansdollor, Garrett Vansant, Richard Sands, George Alberson, Philip Ramson, Francis Cruson, Bernard Vankirk, George Anderson, Nicholas Lazelear, David Dungan, Henry Johnson, James Statts, Jacob Vandegrift, William Cox, Joseph Sands, Richard Goheen, Nicholas Johnson, Minr, John Evans, Stephen Benegette, John Johnson, Lewis Ward, Jacob Vendegrift, Jacob Johnson, Daniel Swerns, David Sipler, Jesse Jackson, Richard Dun, Isaac Morford, Edward Burns, John Barstow, Abraham Larew, Jr., John Brown, John Cateham, Samuel Campble, James McNeal, Jacob Bonser, David Larew, George Plumly, John Dorson, James Creighton, Miles Strickland, John Plumly, William Stone, David Torry. (Jesse's daughter Susan married George Bennett circa 1838 in Pickaway County, OH)

Lower Makefield Company, August 19, 1775
Captain, Peter Vansant; first lieutenant, William Harvey; second lieutenant, Cornelius Vansant; ensign, Richard Stillwell.
Privates -- Adam Warburton, Philip Slack, Joshua Anderson, John Yonis, John Robins, Nicholas Larzelere, Benjamin Vanhorn, William White, Peter Roberts, Joseph Hutchinson, Samuel Poole, Edward Ridlor, William Stackhouse, John Burton, Robert Shillings, Thomas Linton, Thomas Rukey, John Milnor, Richard Plumer, Joseph About, John About, Thomas Lahing, Nathan Doutey, John Gullevy, James Yolty, James Fullerton, Nathaniel Combes, Joseph More, Moses Neald, Amos Thackery, Henry Shaver, Cornelius Mahon, Daniel Palmer, Calop Palmer, Mathew Welch, Garret Vansant, Malon Brown, Samuel Brodnex, Timothy Slack, Thomas Slack, Cornelius Slack, Abraham Slack, Cornelius Slack, James Slack, George Bennet, Philip Philte, Henry Raleman, Phineas Cary, Adam Norris, Isaiah Wiley, Joseph Slack, Daniel Price, John Brown, Joseph Henry, Benjamin Fleming, Owen Loveet, David Cutler, Edward Morton, William Wens, Thomas Wens, John Doughty, Benjamin Palmor, Joshua Palmor, John Yobe, John Larzelere, James Winner, Noah Slack. (Jesse's daughter Susan married George Bennett circa 1838 in Pickaway County, OH)

Northampton Company, August 19, 1775
Captain, Henry Lott, aged 68; first lieutenant, Gerardus Wyncoop; second lieutenant, John Kroesen; ensign, John Thompson.
Privates -- John Addis, Jr., Enoch Addis, Arthur Bennet, John Bennet, Isaac Bennet (swamp), John Bennet, Jr., John Bennet (Arthur's son), William Bennet, Isaac Bennet, Jacob Bennet, Matthew Bennet, Adrian Bennet, Isaac Bennet (George's son), Clement Richardson, Jeremiah Richardson, Jonathan Shaw, Arthur Leffertse, Leffert Leffertse, Abram Leffertse, Richard Leedom, William Mannington, Timothy MaGinnes, Jacob Myers, Daniel McDaniels, George Parson, Robert Parsons, William Parsons, Samuel Richardson, Guliam Cornel, Rem Cornel, John Cornel, Jacob Cornel, Amos Suber, John Hayes, Robert McMaster, Hule Tomb, John Thompson, William Randler, John Randle, John Roberts, John Rankin, John Torbert, John Porter, Stafford Graham, Robert Johnson, Robert McGrandy, Joseph Parker, Benjamin Vanhorn, Isaac Vanhorn, Jr., Robert Vanhorn, James Vanhorn, Henry Stoneman, Steven Howell, Benjamin Carrol, Christian Corsen, Cornelius Corsen, Daniel Corsen, Cornelius Corsen, Jr., Henry Corsen, Hugh Cummins, James Cox, William Carter (cooper), John Carter, Abraham DuBois, Jacob Duffield, Henry Dyer, Charles Dyer, Elias Dungan, Gerret Vanartsdalen, Gerret Dungan, Thomas Dungan, Joseph Dungan, Jesse Dungan, Jeremiah Dungan (Jeremiah's son), Thomas Dungan (Jeremiah's son), Jonathan Willard, George Willard, William Wiggins, Reyneir Bennett, Ferrington Vandeventer, Henry Wynkoop, Isaac Wynkoop, Thomas Searle, Mathias Wesmer, George Meysner, Francis Taggart, Paul Judges, Philip Dracord, John Fisher, Joseph Tomlinson, Levi Choepin, James Brown, Gerret Kroesen (weaver), Hugh Evans, Gawn Edams, Joseph Fenton, Jr., John Fenton, Cornelius Fenton, Henry Feaster, David Feaster, Nathaniel Featherby, Nathan Gilbert, James Gregg, Christian Hagerman, John Hagerman, Jr., Adrian Hagerman, Thomas Hellings, William Harvey, John Kroesen, Jacob Kroesen, Gerret Kroesen, Gerret Kroesen (John's son), Joseph Knowls, Christian Keyser. (Jesse's daughter Susan married George Bennett circa 1838 in Pickaway County, OH)

Middletown, August 21, 1775
Captain, Augustus Willeet; first lieutenant, John Goslin; second lieutenant, Thomas Miller; ensign, Anthony Rue.
Privates -- John Lodey, John Creaper, Thomas Barnet, Samuel Windon, George Subers, Garret Vanhorne, Peter Baker, David Marpole, Nathan Belford, John Suber, John Vanhorne, Jacob Durk, Isaac Pearson, Michael Gregg, Jacob Doughty, Jacob Stegers, Nicholas Stackhouse, Gavil Vanhorn, Anthony Tate, Richard Rue, Linton Davis, Hugh Steel, Amos Brelsford, George Vansant, Joseph White, James Gregg, John Gregg, Hugh Tomson, John Grant, David Johnson, Patrick Gregg, Peter Goslin, Joseph Mode, Francis White, John Mitchell, Jr., John Tomson, James Winner, Anthony Right, Nathaniel Price, Jacob Taubert, James Hibbs, Jr., John Carpenter, Thomas Huddleson, George Huddleson, William Huddleson, Joseph Ashter, Francis Tita, John Belford, Anthony Pine, John Paul, Jonathan Hibbs, William Goslin, Daniel LeRue, Gabriel Vanhorn, Jr., Lares Rue, Josiah Supple, Peter Vahorn (probably Vanhorn), Isaiah Vanhorn, Gristoffel Rue, Gesper Harding, James Cleland, Joshua Rue, Timothy Knowles, Thomas Knowles, Thomas Barton, Jr., Jacob Vanhorn, William More, John Vansant, Joseph Stackhouse, Mathew Rue, Peter Vanhorn, Jr., John Neel.

Southampton, August 19, 1775
Captain, John Folwell; first lieutenant, Walter Willet; second lieutenant, Garret Vansant; ensign, Zephaniah Lott.
Privates -- Henry Krewson, Arthur Watts, Seth Banes, David Praul, Thomas Folwell, Godfrey Vandarens, Joshua Praul, James Banes, John Folwell, Matthias Fenton, Leonard Krewson, Daniel Hogeland, Joseph Seddall, Joseph Vanpelt, Jacob Vandike, John Kroesen, John Williams, Joseph Teraby, Peter Strickler, William Maghee, Jacob Vansant, Cornelius Vandike, Jr., Hugh Erwins, John Hagerman, Nicholas Vansant, Joshua Ward, William Cornel, John Dance, James Evans, Samuel Mitchel, Andrew Wiley, Isaac Vanpelt, James Garey, Benjamin Corson, Jacob Strickler, Jr., Edman States, Felix Lott, William Carter, James Searl, Joseph Danil, Samuel Coard, Levi Vanhorn, Joseph Banes, Jonathan Thomas, John Vansant, William Vansant, John Groom, David Ballard, John Carter, Nicholas Vanarsdalen, Malacia Ritchardson, Thomas Wilson, Jacob Randle, Jonathan Harding, Jacob Randle, Jr., Simon Vanartsdalen, John Thomas, William Vansciver, William Swiney, Benjamin States, Samuel Biles, Obediah Willett, Peter Craft, William Vanhorn, John Vanpelt, William McCormick, Thomas Walch, Ralph Briggs.

Falls, August 21, 1775
Captain, Thomas Harvey; first lieutenant, Thomas Janney; second lieutenant, George Brown, Jr.; ensign, Daniel Bunting.
Privates -- William Kirkpatrick, John Wood, Lamb Pitner, John Roberts, John Hughes, Thomas Bitts, Hugh Morton, John Borrows, Thomas Butcher, Benjamin Wood, Henry Fagan, William Johnson, John Sotcher, William Parsons, William Vasey, Stephen Carter, William Ferguson, John Antrim, Thomas Thompson, Robert Crozer, Alexander Recky, Samuel Barras, Richard Hough, John Hough, James Carr, John Keen, Daniel Lovett, Thomas Stradling, Samuel Weagit, Folard Vandegrift, Richard Clark, William Houghton, Amos Shaw, Henry Neafur, Joseph Shaw, John Vandegrift, Josiah Morgan, William Rice, John Bryan, John Tharp, Jacob Singleton, William Gore, John Blair, Charles Janney, Joseph Doble, John Reading, Joseph Bunting, Jr., John Carns, William Giles, John Bates, Joseph Crozer, Edmund Fagan, John Nugent.

Bristol Borough and Township, October 9, 1775
Captain, William McIlvain; first lieutenant, Abram Britton; second lieutenant, John Priestly; sergeants, James Ledden first, John Bodyne second; corporals, Daniel Kennedy first, John Lyne second.
Privates -- Benjamin Rue, William DeNormandie, Jacob Harman, Martin Heyleman, William Burris, John Curren, Stephen Gurjon, William George, Jonathan Ring, Thomas Right, John Broom, John Edgar, Dennis Dailey, James Barber, Isaac Leech, William Leech, William Burke, Francis Stackhouse, Joshua Wright, Thomas Scott, Samuel Brailsford, Jonathan Wright, Charles Wright, John Murray, William Stackhouse, Charles Purnell, John Bennett, Charles Mellen, John Ash, James Heaton, William Barber, John Barnely, John Dawson, James Wick, Lawrence Johnston, David Guyont, Daniel Bunting, William Allen, Jiles Ransey, John Stackhouse, Peter Lyne, John Leland, Thomas Murphy, Obadiah Wilday, Joseph Madget, Joshua Carrigan, Richard Mitchell, Edward Walstead, John Sullivan, Henry Mitchell, Lewis Rue, Joseph Burden Stevens, Abraham Foster, Ralph Boon, Michael Stackhouse, James McNeil, John Mitchell, Andrew Stoop.
[The following list consists of those who, though formally associated, have paid but little, and some of them no attendance.]
Josiah Seplee, Henry Ketlaer, Thomas Martin*, Daniel Thompson*, William Race*, Joseph Kees*, Charles Bessonett*, Joseph White*, James Flowers, Richard Gosline, William Poole*, Robert Patterson, Charles Wilday*, John Herd*, George Norton*, Samuel Kinsey*, Robert Swan*, Joshua Rue*, David Edgar, Samuel Herd, William Parker*, John Ellwood, Benjamin McDaniels, Peter Brown, William Heaton~, Robert Frame~. (Jesse's daughter Susan married George Bennett circa 1838 in Pickaway County, OH)
N. B. -- Those marked * pay no attendance, and those marked ~ have been discharged for misdemeanor.

Second Battalion
List of officers of the Second Battalion of Bucks County Associators, 1775.
Colonel, John Beatty; lieutenant colonel, Robert Shewell; first major, James McMaster; second major, William Roberts.

Buckingham and Wrightstown Company
Captain, John Lacey; first lieutenant, John Williams; second lieutenant, Samuel Smith; ensign, William Bennett.
Buckingham Associators. -- Privates -- John Sample, Robert Sample, Thomas Daugherty, William Robinson, William Simpson, Jr., John Thomas, John Huston, Thomas Huston, Adam Middleton, Thomas Dunning, Adam Barr, John Simpson, William Kirkwood, Moses Adkinson, Aaron Lockart, John Bogart, Mark Halfpenny, Silas Martain, John Tucker, James Tucker, Joseph Vanhorn, John Slack, Thomas Smith, Thomas Barr, William Stone, James Sample, Jr., Levi Starling, David Wisnor, Henry Sturk, Morris Welsh, William Stokesberry, Benjamin Flick, John Sproll, Thomas Drenners, William Finney, Isaac Osmon, Abinezar Carter, John Rice.
Wrightstown Associators. -- James Sacket, Cornelius Vansant, William Thompson, James Gilkinson, William Drake, George Vannander, Edward Duffield, John Lewis, James Sweney, Robert Wilson, James Barron, John Johnston, David Brooke, Simon Sacket, Robert Wood, Zack Smith, James Anderson, Robert Arkol, Charles Dugan, Samuel Macdanyel, Thomas Gain, John Manghen, James Terry, Leonard Kizer, John Burns, James Christa, James Rice, James Megrady, Nathiel Makinstry.

Warrington Company, August 19, 1775
Privates -- William Long, Andrew Long, James Barkly, Robert Weir, Archibald Parker, Thomas Craig, Mathew Knox, Thomas Weir, John Rickey, Thomas Rickey, David Rickey, William Rickey, Andrew Rickey, Robert Wats, Jonathan Gerry, Robert Davison, Robert Miller, Robert Walker, William Walker, John Spear, Hugh Barkly, Hugh Ramsey, Robert Ellet, John Ellet, John Beatty, Edward Liddle, Alexander Parker, William Robison, John Robison, Charles Morrow, Andrew Wallace, James Whiteside, Andrew Long, Jr., Andrew Greg, William Greg, William Melley, Francis Jedlon, James Huston, John Harmod Seer, John Rider Poke, William Diterline, Thomas Taylor, Andrew Haul, John Wallis*, William Craford, Henry Huston.
*Associated New Britain.

Plumstead Company, August 21, 1775
Captain, William McCalla.
Privates -- Benjamin Fell, Charles Stewart (about 50), John Dunlap, William Kenedy, John Greir, James Sample, Isaac Thomas, Thomas Mathew Greir (about 50), Hugh Ferguson (about 50), Thomas Dickinson, Alexander McFarland, Daniel Thomas, Robert Gilson, William McCalla, Francis Titus, Joseph Dyer, William Hart, John McMullin, Thomas Dyer, Joseph Thomas, Jesse Britton, Phillip Hinkle, Peter Wood, Patrick Poe, Robert Gilson, Jr., John McCalla, Samuel Hair, Isaac Hill, David Nesbett, James Faries, Samuel Faries, Samuel Titus, Alexander Robinson, Jacob Casdross, John Hart, Benjamin Griffith, John Gaddis, William Smith, Barnet Kepler, David Smith, William Tyndal, John Boyd, John Vanfossen, Phillip Fox, Patrick McGahan, Richard Lott, Adam Bean, Jonathan Hunsman, John Haskins, George Stewart, John Smith, Hugh Fleming, Joseph Hart, Samuel Brittain, Joseph Sayerans, Peter Trough, Conrad Bean, Jr., Joseph Shaffer, George Hughes, Thomas Craig, David Forman, Daniel Millhuff, James McMullan, Henry Gadis, Levi Fell, John Fonsman, William Davis, John Gibson, Andrew McCalla, John Dunlap, Jr., George Burn, William Chilcott, George Rice, Cornelius Neafur, George Gaddis, Peter Cosner, Adam Shaffer, Valentine Mostiller, Samuel Watt, Ezekial Rogers, Francis Titus, Peter Foddle, John Rogers, William Meredith.
(Jesse's daughter Elizabeth married John Dunlap circa 1807 in Pickaway County, OH.)

Hilltown Company, August 21, 1775
Privates -- Joseph Shaw, John Kelley, William Thomas, Moses Haron (probably Aaron), Jonah Thomas, William Miller, Nathaniel Jones, Abraham Vastine, Howell Griffith, Job West, Thomas Campbell, William Kidd, Thomas Morris, Evan Griffith, Benjamin Mathias, Thomas Shewell, Hugh McHenry, John Lewis, William Griffith, Edward Jones, Joseph Morris, Samuel Shanson, John Monerbaugh, Benjamin Kelley, William Davis, Lewis Lunn, William Campbell, John Mathew, Thomas Jones, Charles Miller, Asa Thomas, Cadwallader Morris, Robert Shanon, Abel Owens, Thomas Davis, Thomas Williams, Jonathan Jones, Amos Thomas, Job Thomas, Abel Miller, Benjamin Griffith, Edward Jones, Jr., Griffith Owens, Elijah Brittain, John Mathias, Nathan Evans, William Lunn, Simon Hazzard, Michael Gum, Caleb Shotwell, Henry Lewis, James Lewis, Enoch Thomas, John Shields, Benjamin Vastine, George Shipe, Michael Shipe, Thomas Lewis, Robert Heaton, Samuel Wallace, James Armstrong.

Solebury Company, August 19, 1775
Captain, John Wall.
Privates -- Paul Kester, Daniel Pettit, John Shepherd, John Seabring, Joseph Todd, Barnett Vanhorn, Enock Betts, Peter Dewitt, Samuel Davis, George Green, Benjamin Hartley, Jr., William Hill, John Hamilton, Joseph Vanhorn, Isaac Vanhorn, Sr., Isaac Vanhorn, Jr., Derick Tenbrook, George Wall, Jr., John Minter, John Myers, Derick Roberts, George Gardner, Moses Fenel, Joseph Jobson, John Howell.

Solebury Company, August 21, 1775
Captain, John Coryell; first lieutenant, Henry Lott; second lieutenant, James Ingham; ensign, James McClode.
Privates -- John Coglar, John Rian, James Brotherton, John Cavenough, Jeremiah Cooper, Thomas Lewis, John Coryell, Jr., William Rodman, James Cummins, John Newbanks, Benjamin Horn, George Savill, Daniel Hogeland, Jacob Stooksbury*, Jonathan Ingham, David White, George Crous, Thomas Sebring, Isaak VanHorn*, John Cummins, John Marks, Patrick Gauvock, Daniel Quimby, Peter Horn, Samuel Gordon, James Bryan, Samuel Give, Henry Lear, John Gouger, John Walker, Michael McCray, William Hardin, William Jonson, Thomas Jonson, Ambrose Croker, John Mounteer, William Rogers, Nathaniel More, Thomas Lewis, Jr., Timothy Scott, William Waterhouse, Jonathan Done, Andrew Collins, James Lottsman, John Lazyman, Jr., Cornelius Snell, Jeremiah Lot, Peter Ink, William Betts, William Kitchen.
*Are gone to Wall's company.

Upper Makefield Company, August 19, 1775 Nockamixon Company
Whereas, It appears from authentic accounts received from England, that it is the design of the Present Ministers to enforce the great unjust and cruel acts of Parliament complained of in the Most Loyal and Dutiful manner by the Congress,
And Whereas an Additional Number of Troops with a fleet have been ordered for America to assist the Troops now in Boston, in the Execution of the said acts, We the subscribers agree that we will associate for the Purpose of Learning the Military Exercise, and for Defending our Property, Liberty and Lives against all attempts to deprive us of them.
Captain, Jacob Schoupe; first lieutenant, Nicholas Custort; second lieutenant, Solomon Litcheay; ensign Averpack (Overbeck); sergeants, Deanis Prusle, Jacob Burstrusser (Burgstresser), George Adams, William Custort; corporals, Jacob Rufe, Ralph Sevele, Richard Trouer, Godfrey Millen.
Privates -- Jacob Bidleman, Jacob Myer, John Hoocos, George Overbeck, Jr., Grafe Mathimas Marman, Andrew Emig, John Broogh, Nicholas McCarty, Henry Franganfeld, Felix Deel, Stofel Preel, Lawrence Messer, Michael Sheck, Jacob Leaghtle, John Raisner, Conard Hulman, Jacob Kole, George Kole, Jacob Zimpston, Jonathan Gregary, Jacob Roof (Rufe), Solomon Wolfanger, John Roof, Michael Good, Philip Grobern, John Klinger, Christian Trauger, Henry Roof, Adam Blak, John Ulmer, William Gregary, Paul Rimer, John Tenbrook, Frederick Fook, Andrew Hamertson, John Eyleif, Andrew Dretenback, Jacob Neemand, Peter Stem, Adam Stem, John Kalf, Peter Zikenfoos, David Gordon, Henry Adams, Jacob Rickey, Jacob Young, John Hegar, James Gordon, Philip Idam, John Younkin, John Sheek, John Hufman, Henry Shoup, Jacob Lightcap, Melgar Wydenmyer, Morris Morris, Lawrence Pirson, Uria Dipy, John Jacob Zinkenfoos, John Deemer, Christian Trauger, Henry Reegle, John Reegle, Daniel Reegle, Michael Cole, David Stam, John Dreetenback, Philip Pirson, Andrew Preel, Jacob Ashborn, John Nolden, Daniel Snider, Michael Krause, John Michaels,
Associators under age. -- Thomas Stewart, Alexander McElroy, George McElroy, John McComan, Philip Gresler, Kilian Gresler, Jacob Harman, Samuel Morrison, Thomas Liade, John Jamison, David Jamison, Hugh Jamison, Peter Loutonston, John Loughry, Amos Loughry. (Jesse's daughter Cynthia married Joseph Jamison circa 1835 in Pickaway County, OH)

Rockhill Company, August 10, 1775
Captain, Andrew Kechline; first lieutenant, Michael Smith; second lieutenant, Nowrad Messimer; ensign, Thomas Armstrong.
Privates -- Adam Shave, John Brown, Robert Smith, Henry Leach, Andrew Stolet, George Row, John Paule, Christian Pack, George Phillips, George Stiner, John Dager, Peter Walter, Philip Walter, Christian Hell, Michael Plank, John Frederick, Danner Penner, Peter Green, Conrad Swink, Joseph Stompe, Will Willhelm, John Shoups, Ludwick Penner, Gasper Fluck, Conrad Masonhamer, Jacob Fosbinner, Valentine Gearies, Philip Toma, Jacob Penter, Peter Shire, Charles Nagle, Peter Henry, Jacob Wifel, Jacob Fluck, George Magle, Adam Magel, Ludivick, Thomas Scotland, Simon Smeech, Andrew Ingland, Sebastian Steer, Peter Hack, John Stinger, Valentine Bargstraser, Henry Loux, Leonard Heninggar, George Seyler, George Witemyer, Barnat Rupert, John Bargstraser, Lasrence Cremor.

Springfield Company, August 21, 1775
Privates -- Michael Fackenthall, Philip Hess, George Buntin, Christian Mench, Philip Correll, Daniel Deal, Michael Deal, Martin Brown, Peter Hedrech, George Weber, Peter Gruber, Adam Bidleman, Elias Shwarz, Peter Zigler, Jacob Erdman, Cassimer Henys, John Mench, Rudolph Kroman, Wollery Lutz, John Moyer, John Folk, Nicholas Buck, Tenus Hartzel, Adam Mench, John Metzger, Frederick Kirch, Adam Shoog, Philip Man, John Young, Adam Frankenfield, Peter Ruth, Philip Trevy, Moses Buntin, Charles Eichline, John Folmer, Sebastian Hover, Casper Metzger, John Woolslayer, Isaac Wisebach, John Man, Jacob Baron, Yest Smith, Christopher Wigner, Henry Affenbache, Peter Shoog, Andrew Segafoos, John Esterle, Benedict Strome, Charles Diel, Frederick Konig.

Richland Company, October 9, 1775
First lieutenant, John Richison; second lieutenant, Peter Deall; ensign, Daniel Bartholomew; first sergeant, Joseph Radobock; second sergeant, Henry Deall; fifer, John Hinchel.
Privates -- William Hickinbottom, Peter Wakel, Nicholas Trumbower, Andrew Reese, Samuel Elliott, William Taylor, Martin Weaver, Michel Phyler, Henry Smith, Jacob Wisell, Jacob Ortt, Leonard Hinkel, John Wilhelm, Bernet Heller, Samuel Tennis, Emanuel Wagner, Robert Miller, James Miller, Moses Pettit, George Ardebus, William Nellson, Elisha Parcker, James Mellwin, Jr., Philip Shitts, Benjamin Croo, Samuel Wollston, Andrew Snider, Killyou Garey, Lowdrick Fluck, Andrew Stoon, Jr., Daniel Stoon, John Burck, George Burck, Frederick Deal, Jacob Rodaback, Jacob Burck, Peter Deal (weaver), David Althous, Peter Smith, George Deall, Michael Deall, John Deall, Benjamin Wolcher, Christian Dill, Philip Stall, Henry Noragon, Jacob Moock, Michael Croman, Lowdrick Hoffman, Youst Smith, Solomon Grover, Casper Gross, Barnett Sworts, Samuel Tolbert, Stephen Knisel, Lick Parcker, Edward Parcker.

Lower Milford Company, 1775
Captain, Henry Huber; lieutenant, Philip Trombour; ensign, Hottch, Conrad Keer.
Privates -- George Egert, Peter Koll, Adam Trombour, Henry Huber, John Hoffman, David Spinner, Jacob Toward, Jr., Michael Miller, Jacob Frick, Philip Kohl, Jacob Hauffman, Michael Brauchler, Jacob Philips, Isaac Harnacker, John Mawren, Jonathan Baur, Michael Schwartz, David Philips, John Fow, William Wintzer, Valentine Beydemann, Elias Krider, John Wolleber, George Engel, Adam Zigenfuss, Peter Kuder, Samuel Melven, Michael Kolk, Jacob Benner, Jacob Frick, John Fries, Joseph Jameson, Jonathan Weidner, Nicholas Mombour, Dewalt Brauchler, Benjamin Leah, Peter Wolf, Simon Gucker, George Zeigenfuss, Christian Huber, Abraham Ditlo, Christopher Ritenauer, Henry Bleyler, Jr., George Philips (miller), Jacob Huber, Joseph Seabold, Henry Huber (shoemaker), Daniel Bambrucht, Philip School, Rudolph Huber, Rudolph Ditweiler, Jacob Thomas, Joseph Rieling, Michael Bischop, Jacob Klein, Jonathan Klein, Henry Wambold, Wendel Mayer, Valentine Giger, Israel Bartch, Jonathan Dinter (miller), Thomas Boger, Michael Eberhart, Jonathan Jacoby, Jacob Gugler, Ensworth Leiber, George Heist, Adam Reichart, George Reichart, Adam Heckman, Peter Schoner, Casper Bastian, Jonathan Shelly, Henry Matthers, William Getman, Weitnicht, Frederick Fritz, Frederick Pester, Peter Samsel, Michael Pleiler, Philip Dosch, George Horlacker, Berin Ruter, Christian Miller, Peter Daub, Philip Numbaur, Peter Gabel, Christian Chriter, Martin Pachs, Adam Willaner, Fullenton Huber, Dewald Samsel, Henry Bitting, Henry Ablinger, George Helligas, George Chritz, Abraham Rinder, William Schimeson, Jacob Fox, Michael Edum, Christopher Sacks, Joseph Harnacker, Jacob Breisch, Peter Pleiler, David Mokle, Thomas Edwards, George Zangmeister, Philip Zangmeister, John Macht, Henry Wenige, John Waldmann, Joseph Erdman, Linhart Hefuer, Jacob Mathews, Peter Mathews, Ludwick Schwager, Carl Wohnsiegler, Joseph Shaw. (Jesse's daughter Cynthia married Joseph Jamison circa 1835 in Pickaway County, OH)

Captain Henry Van Horn's Militia Company, Newtown, Colonel Joseph Kirkbride's Regiment January 22, 1777
Captain, Henry Van Horn, December 6, 1776; first lieutenant, Robert Ramsey, December 6, 1776; second lieutenant, Thomas Huston, December 2, 1776; ensign, Abram Johnson, December 6, 1776; sergeant, McMinn; corporal, John Vance; drummer, Isaiah Vanhorn.
Privates -- John Price, Joshua Van Horn, David McMorris, James McMorris, James Sharkey, Archibald McCorkell, David Riddle, Peter Lafferton, Patrick Hunter, William Bateman, Thomas Harper, Eman Scott, Abram Slack, Jeremiah Van Horn, John Johnson, Robert Watson, Robert McDowell.

Captain Binkley's Militia Company, Third Battalion, January 1, 1777
Captain, Christian Binkley; first lieutenant, Nicholas Masser; second lieutenant, John Shannon; ensign, Henry Binkley; sergeants, Francis Wohleben, John Dusing; corporals, Frederick Henyer, Frederick Hornberger; drummer, Thomas Sagrer.
Privates -- George Koomlouf, Paul Stiff, John Gleinginey, Peter Nufer, John Loub, Adam Fritcht, Christian Hegereiss, Philip Hatt, John Koch, Mathias Koch, Mathias Gerner, John Milleison, Jacob Hoffort, Henry Hoffort, Jacob Dusing, Andrew Greiner.

Tinicum Company
Captain, Nicholas Patterson; first lieutenant, Henry Douty; second lieutenant, Thomas Ransy; ensign, William Means; sergeants, Moses Kelley, Jacob Weaver, Jacob Brooks, John Praul.
Privates -- John Thompson, John Patterson, Jr., William Davis, James Smith, Robert McFarling, John McGlahland, Charles Wilson, Samuel Mathews, Alexander Mitchel, Alexander Patterson, James Heny, James Carrel, John Means, Daniel Baxter, Ezra Patterson, John Kanard, Henry McDowell, Robert Stewart, Jr., Stophel Slater, John Patterson, Samuel Abernathy, Samuel Greenaway, James McCahren, Thomas Giles, Aaron Van Debelt, Samuel Hart, Andrew Patterson, James Wilson, Andrew Wilson, Cornelius Van De Belt, Thomas Tilyer, John Baley, Michael Walter, Jacob Nees, Abraham Gouncan, Herman Shuman, John Nees, Peter Sign, John Shupe, Robert Harvey, Benjamin Holdron, Elias Harris, Samuel Tomb, Peter Van De Belt, Conrad Shermal, William McCawley, David McGarger, Andrew Mower, Jonathan Thomas, John Pope, Joseph McFarland, William McIntyne, Anthony Haney, Simon Haney, Frederick George, Michael Lampard, Michael Strouse, Jr., John Strouse, George Strouse, Ludwick Wildonger, Alexander Miller, John Swab, Jacob Trout, William Means, Jr., Levi Owens, Stats Overholt, Bartholomew Moffit, Edward Rachford, John White, Uriah News, Joseph White, Manuel Pitcock, Peter Kolp, Jacob Walter, Henry Titomer.
[Broke off from this company after having the privilege of choosing officers in the first, and made a second company to the damage and disturbance of the first company of the township, the following persons, viz: Captain, Arthur Irwin; lieutenant, Patrick Shaw; ensign, Wilson; privates, Robert Steward, Sr., Thomas Steward, Jr., John Kelly, Robert Steward, 2d Jr., William Miller, John Irwin, John Richey, John McHolom, William McGlahland, Alexander McDowell.]
[Persons belonging to said township that had not subscribed the first association and now joined Irwin's company]: Peter Snyder, Joseph Hail, James Wallace, Henry Kolp, Jacob Fair.

Warminster Company
Joseph Hart, Esq., William Kerr, Joseph Hart, Jr., Herman Yerkes, James McKinney, James Craven, William Craven, John Brooks, Jr., William Johnston, John Watkin, Robert Miller, Silas Gilbert, John Johnson, Stephen Murry, John Roney, William Gilbert, Joseph Miller, Patrick Morrison, Isaac Hough, Jr., John Hough, Giles Craven, Charles Garrison, Edward Yerkes, James Scout, John Brooks, Charles Engard, Anthony Scout, Abraham Sutphin, James Ogilbee, Alexander Benstead, William Vansant, John Stone, Silas Hart, Giles McDowell, Benjamin Gilbert, James Ryan, Isaac Hough, Nathaniel Beans, Linsey Marshall, Isaac Beans, Jesse Beans, John Griffith, Thomas Griffith, Giles Craven, Jr., Richard Knight, James McDowell, Robert McDowell, John Beatty, John McDowell, John Daniel, Joseph Hart, Jr., John Conrad, John Henderson.

New Britain Company
Benjamin Mathews, David Caldwell, Samuel Graham, William Roberts, Mathew Law, Abiah James, John Robinson, Mordecai Bevan, David Davis, James Shaw, Richard Wilgus, Joseph Griffith, Joseph Robinson, Capt. Samuel Griffith, Tobias Shull, George Gungell, John Dungan, Thomas Kelso, James Thomas, Joseph Grier, Christian Ruffcorn, Samuel Harris, Henry Darrach, James Grier, Andrew Simson, Margan James, Abiah Butler, Nathan Mathew, John Harris, William Heyner, Ebenezer James, Charles Dorn, Mathew Grier, Alexander Moore, James Mullin, John Wallace, William Crawford, John Dungan, Jeremiah Nastine (probably Vastine), Simon Ruffcorn, John Tornence, Robert Shewell, James Wigton, Jenkin James, Isaac Williams, Aaron James, Benjamin Butler, Isaac James, Abel James, Samuel Mason, John Davis, John Edmund, William Pugh, Thomas Stewart, John Van Pelt, Isaac Newhouse, Callender, Joseph Vanpelt, Robert Flack, Andrew Crery, John Kinley, Robert Caldwell, Samuel Weston, William Borum, Owen Thomas, Joseph Thomas, Stephen Barton, John Wier, Evan Stephens, Benjamin Griffith, Thomas Harris, William Stephens, John Garvin, John James, Aaron Borum, Amos Griffith, John Mathew, Edward Mathew, Patrick Barren, Samuel Lyon, James Wier, Augustus Singley, Isaiah James, William James, John Dungan, David Rees, George Johnston, Walter Shewell, Thomas Hutchinson, John James, William Hair, Enoch Allen, Benjamin Stephens, John Evans, Benjamin Beven, Henry Haston, Daniel Hasty, Samuel Campbell, William Griffith, Thomas Riddles, John Taylor, Alexander Finley, Malachi Burns, Dr. Hugh Meredith, John Knox, Thomas Meredith, Jonathan Mason, Simon Meredith, Edward Pole, John Hogland.

Warick Company, August 21, 1775
James Wallace, John Jamison, James McMickin, John Jamison, Garvin McGrady, Hugh Means, Adam Kerr, Alexander Jamison, Robert Baird, John Carr, Daniel Gullin, Robert Bready, John McMin, David Shannon, Robert Jamison, Stephen Doyle, John Roberts, Aaron Lovett, Moses Crawford, Samuel Flack, Jonathan Roberts, Robert Means, Hugh Long, William Walker, William Baxter, Alexander Harvey, Mank Gregory, Joseph Davis, James Snodgrass, Joseph Rodman, Samuel Pogue, Joseph Flack, John Rogers, Thomas Craven, John McDonnel, Thomas Bready, Andrew McMicken, John Grier, William Simpson, William Brady, James McQuown, Hugh Huston, Timothy Lynch, David Palmer, James Page, John McGrady, Jesse Bewley, Joshua Dungan, Benjamin Hair, John Hair, John Shannon, John Lough, John Martin, Benjamin Snodgrass, John Miller, James Cabeen, Joseph Simmons, Benjamin Hamilton, Edward Taylor, Jacob Priaker, William Ramsey, Francis Baird, Thomas Powers, Alexander Ramsey, William Doyle, Robert Cornwell, John Megee, Thomas McMasters, William Duffie, David Jonston, John Hugh, Joseph Dungan, Charles Walker, Andrew Dennison, John Mathers, John Decourney, Henry Davis, John Hervey, John Craig, Jonathan Martin, William Kendell, Mathew McMin, James Crawford, John Longhead, James Longhead, Charles McMichen, John Scott, William Smith, John Hamilton, John Wallace, Robert Jonson, Arthur Carey, Thomas Craven, Thomas Wert, Samuel Shennen, Archibald Graham, John Hunter, William Glachy. (Jesse's daughter Cynthia married Joseph Jamison circa 1835 in Pickaway County, OH)

Captain Darrah's* Company, Bucks County Militia, Lieutenant Colonel John Lacey's Battalion, December 3, 1777
Captain, Henry Darrah; lieutenants, Joseph Green, Jones, Ingham; ensign, William Borom; fifer, Simon James; clerk, William Coffin; sergeants, John Weir, Andrew McCreary, Thomas Ritchie; corporals, David Herrin, John Tate, Richard Wilgus, Daniel Hasty.
Privates -- John Mathers, Alexander Parker, John Parker, John Robinson, Moses Dunlap, William Hair, Jacob Pickard, John Shepherd, Stephen Doyle, Charles Dunlap, Alexander Long, Peter Jedun, Isaac James, Samuel Mason, Alexander Mason, Adam Bolin, John Grant, William Harvey, Benjamin Wood, John Cummins, John Neaphas, Levick Roberts, Francis Jedun, Abram Vandyke, George Smith, Joseph Law, Thomas Gaun, William Doyle, Robert Morrison, Samuel Jones, Hugh Watson, Robert Kennedy, Robert Weir, Hugh Barkley, Thomas Hill, Henry Young, John Kern, Thomas Hamilton, John Robinson, John Herrin, John James, Charles Morrow.
*In the fall of 1778 Captain Darrah commanded a company in Colonel William Roberts' battalion of militia, stronger in numbers. At this time he lived in Warrington, but subsequently moved to Warminster, where he died.

Captain Darrah's Company, Bucks County Militia, Colonel William Roberts' Battalion September 21, 1778
Captain, Henry Darrah.
Privates -- David Davis, Benjamin Butler, Joseph Thomas, Morgan James, Samuel Borgy, Robert Ewer, Alexander Forman, William Morris, Peter Kippard, John Harvey, Henry Ruth, George Caingell, James Weir, Thomas Mathews, Andrew Stinson, Christian Khoar, John Law, Conrad Swartzlander, Joseph Griffith, Isaac James, Peter Kippard, Jr., Robert Morrison, John Miller, John Lapp, Jeremiah Vastine, John James, Alexander More, Joseph Matthews, Amos Griffith, Henry Rosenberry, Thomas James, Mathey Law, Tobiah Shull, William James, Andrew Ruth, George Shipe, Abraham Coffin, John Sprogell, Owen Swarts, John James, Joseph Robeson, James Griffin, Lewis Lunn, Simon James, John Ruth, John Davis, Esq., Christian Etherholt (probably Otherholt), Abiah Butler, Jacob Shirer, Christian Ruth, Jonathan Drake, William Griffith, Abraham Ruth, John Weir, Benjamin Griffith, Philip Eckerman, Edward Williams, Jacob Miller, William Thomas, John Kisler, Charles Dunlap, Samuel Mason, Isaac Williams, Jacob Creaton, John Thomson, Isaac Lapp, Samuel Harvey, Joseph Lunn, Stephen Bartain, Andrew McCreary, Owen Thomas, Robert Flack, Thomas Jones, Frederick Kippard, Mark Fraley, Jeremiah Dungan, Samuel Griffith, David Caldwell, William Hare, John Edonard, Benjamin Mathews, George Tidesyler, Eleazer James, Zachariah Tiddro, Harry Ruth, Ludqig Stricknard, William McVey, Richard Lewis, Christian Miller, Chrystian Clymer, Benjamin Brown, Garvin Stevens, Robert Jones, John Mason, Andrew Harvey, Jacob Swartz, Robert Thomson, James Hackley, David Thomas, James Haslett.

Captain Bennett's Light Dragoons
Captain, Jacob Bennett; lieutenant, Jacob Forst; cornet, John Shaw.
Privates -- John Horner, William Ramsey, Joseph Hart, Jr., Thomas Hughes, Stacy Taylor, Gabriel Vansant, Peter Roberts, William Bennet, John Shannon, James Leddon, Robert Mernes, Jacob Kentner, John Armstrong, William McConkey, Daniel Martin, Nathaniel Burrows, John Roberts, Joseph Sacket, Jr., George Mitchell, George Fell, John Torlbert (probably Torbert), John McCammon, Aaron Hagerman, Jesse Brittain, Benjamin Yeoman, Robert Craige, Thomas Wilson.
I do certify that the foregoing is a true state of the cavalry for the county of Bucks, June 18, 1781. (No signature.)
(Jesse's daughter Susan married George Bennett circa 1838 in Pickaway County, OH.)

On roll of Captain Abraham Miller's Company, Northampton County Riflemen, was the name of Samuel Dean, Bucks county; in 1776 appointed lieutenant of Colonel Hart's Battalion, Flying Camp, subsequently lieutenant of Eleventh Pennsylvania.
Herhemon, John; wounded in the jaw at Long Island; drafted into the commander-in-chief's guard, 1778; in 1810 resided in Warrington township, Bucks county.
Col. Arthur St. Clair's Regiment, Second Pennsylvania Line: Chaplain, McCalla, Rev. Daniel, of Warwick, Bucks county; appointed January 16, 1776; captured at Three Rivers, June 8; died in Charleston, S. C., May, 1809. Sprague's Annal, Vol. I, page 320.
Col. John Shea's Regiment, Third Pennsylvania: Graydon, Alexander, commissioned captain January 5, 1776, Bucks county; taken prisoner November 16, 1776; paroled July 7, 1777; exchanged April, 1778; first prothonotary of Dauphin county, 1785; author of "Graydon's Memors;" died at Philadelphia, May 2, 1818, aged sixty-seven.
Byles, Thomas Langhorne, Bucks county, commissioned January 5, 1776; captured November 16, 1776; exchanged March 1, 1778; promoted major Third Pennsylvania June 8, 1777. This company was partly raised in middle and lower Bucks.
Colonel Anthony Wayne's Fourth Pennsylvania: Lacey, John, commissioned captain January 5, 1776; commissioned brigadier-general January 9, 1778. This company was partly enlisted in Bucks county.
Col. Robert Magaw's Fifth Pennsylvania: Beatty, John, Warminster, Bucks county; commissioned captain January 5, 1776; promoted major October 12, 1776. Priestly, John, Bristol, Bucks county; commissioned first lieutenant January 6, 1776; taken prisoner November 16, 1776; exchanged October 25, 1780; entitled to captain's commission January 1, 1778.
VanHorne, Isaac Solebury; commissioned ensign January 8, 1776. Murray, John, sergeant, Bucks county, paroled December 26, 1776. Wallace, sergeant, Warrington; paroled December 26, 1776. Forsyth, Robert, corporal; promoted December 26, 1776.
Privates -- Aiken, Robert, Warminster, paroled December 26, 1776; Banks, John, New Britain, paroled December 26, 1776; Bell, Thomas, Bristol, paroled December 26, 1776; Boone, Ralph, Bristol, paroled December 26, 1776; Boone, Solomon, escaped or absent, sick; Breton, Joseph, Bristol, paroled December 26, 1776; Carrigan, Joshua, Bristol, died a prisoner in New York, December 15, 1776,

Keller's Battalion of Militia
Lieutenant Colonel Keller's Battalion of Militia, in service in the fall of 1781, consisted of eight companies, a total of 677 men, of which the rolls of three companies are to be found: Lieutenant colonel, John Keller; captains, Garvin Adams, Marcus Yost, Elias Yoder, Richard Stillwell, John Thomas, Daniel Hogland, William Erwin, Robert Patterson.
Captain, Robert Patterson; lieutenant, Philip Slack; ensign, Shaw; sergeants, Abraham Thompson, John Stotts, Nathan Cadwalader; corporals, John Dun, Robert Christy, Robert Green; drummer and fifer, Michael Ruiz.
Privates -- Samuel Huston, Edmund Nutt, Robert Shaw, William Parker, John Whitehead, James Guy, Jyles Ramsey, Abram Parker, Jacob Vandegrift, John Clark, William Wheaton, Anthony Rue, James Horsfield, Matthew Hill, Jonathan Hibbs, Jonathan Obdike, Joseph Jay, Patrick McOwing, Isaac Larrew, Peter Barnet, Charles Fetters, Philip Sypler, Harmon Titus, Daniel Severns, John Stackhouse, Abraham Lott, Isaac Brelsford, Samuel Roberson, Barnet Vandegrift, Benjamin Woodland, Garret Vandegrift, Joseph Catter, Daniel Lawrence, Robert Wood, James Rowing, Thomas Kreger, David Davis, Benjamin Vandegrift, Samuel Menrow, George Ransom, Josia Supple, George Stockdam, Daniel Stotts, Thomas Vandegrift, Edward Williams, Jesse Jackson, Edward Burns, Jeremiah Ward, Jacob Vandegrift, Richard Gehean, John Moreford, Reuben McCoy, Jacob Titus, Samuel Boonn, Jacob Fight, William Race, Joseph Vanhorn, Henry O. Harrow, John Kilby, Thomas Brelsford, Joseph Vanshiver, Richard Goslin, Amos Brelsford, Matthew Rue, Thomas Brown, William Winner, William Kinsey, Edward Bradfield, James Shaw, John Tully, George Brown, George Vansant, George Douglass, John Dunhaven, John Thornton, John Bludin, Jasper Moon.
Company mustered October 11, 1781.

Captain William Erwin's Company
Captain, William Erwin; lieutenant, William Flack; sergeants, Joseph Brooks, Ludwick Worman, Christopher Erwin; corporal, John Rentner; drummer and fifer, Jacob Hole.
Privates -- William Campbell, Jacob Fox, Nicholas Wagner, James Templeton, James Davis, James Wallace, William Means, Robert Stewart, Abel Shynock, William Winters, Cornelius Vanderbolt, William Bell, John Hole, Hammon Yorkers, Robert Ramsey, Henry Kulp, Baltas Crow, Jacob Evert, George Bell, John Burgan Conrad, Anthony Hanly, Thomas Duroth, George Bennet, John Miller, Daniel Yunken, John Fundirastock, Joseph Shaw, James Begs, Charles Lyer, James Cambell, James Braden, Samuel Hart, Joseph Shepherd, John Anglemire, Thomas Crage, William Miller, William Custart, Leonard Strouse, Christopher Strouse, John Callouan.
Mustered October 11, 1781.

Captain Richard Stillwell's Company
Captain, Richard Stillwell; lieutenant, William Gore; ensign, Dennis Dayly; sergeants, Timothy Taylor, Jr., Samuel Launsbury, Henry Presler, Hugh Glanahan, drummer and fifer.
Privates -- Joseph Margerum, Mahlon Brown, Joshua Thackary, Amos Thackaray, Richard Yardley, John Shaver, Alexander Richey, Cornelius Slack, John Slack, James Mathues, William Gold, Jeremiah Lambert, Patrick Herkins, Thomas Richey, William Hickey, Robert Blaney, John Twining, William Brown, Elijah Evans, James McMorris, Benjamin Anderson, John Dirck, John Hess, William Murfit, Jonathan Phillips, William Margaram, David Larew, Joseph Wood, Benjamin Wright, David Wile, James Vansant, Jonas Fox, Jacob Vansant, Thomas Longshore, John Duly, Damon Price, David Sullivan, John Baly, Thomas Buchanan, Benjamin Buchanan, James McMinn.
Mustered October 11, 1781.

Seven Month's Men, 1782
Captain Carter's Company -- William Doughty, John Thomas.
Captain Adams' Company -- Francis Lee, Peter Bellesfelt.
Captain Hart's Company -- Henry Donnelly, Charles Jones.
Captain Williams' Company -- Nathan Felherby, William Earl.
Captain Jamison's Company -- James Smith, Nathan Roberts.
Captain Neeley's Company -- John Davis, Joseph Parker.
Captain Leffert's Company -- Stephen Gilbert, William Vansciver.
Captain Walker's Company -- Hendrew Oasman, Simean Bedel.
I do certify that the above are the names of the 7 mo. men who were enlisted out of the respective companies above set down, and I believe all served except Wm. Earl, who did not, and cannot be entitled to any pay. September ye 20th, 1782. (Signed) Joseph Hart, Lieut. B. C.
To William Scott, Paymaster to the Militia.
The return of the five militia regiments of Bucks county, in service May 6, 1777: First colonel, Hugh Tomb; second, Arthur Erwin; third, John Keller; fourth, William Roberts; and fifth, Joseph McIlwain. Their strength, officers and men, was 5 colonels, 5 lieutenant colonels, 5 majors, 40 captains, 119 subalterns, 160 sergeants, 40 drummers, 40 fifers, and 2,791 privates, a total of 4,205. During the summer and fall of that year 18 companies, with the aggregate strength of 695, were stationed at Bristol and Billingsport.
Sometime during the Revolution, but the date is not given, a company of horse was organized here, with the following commissioned officers: Captain Thomas Sandford; lieutenant, Walker Willett; cornet, George Geran. This is all we know of the organization. As "Willet" is a Bensalem and Southampton name, the company was probably from the lower part of the county.

End of Appendix "Bucks County Associators."

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Notes: bold and red font added by me [DLH 2008]. Red italics reflect my comments.

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