Robert Gibson of Bucks County -- Will, Inventory and Settlement, 1788 & 1794

Note: Original capitalization, punctuation and spelling retained.

1788 will of Robert Gibson -- click on picture for larger view
Will, written April 24, 1788, proved August 22, 1788

In the Name of God Amen I Robert Gibson of plumstead Township Bucks County and State of Pensylvania yeoman being weak in Body but Sound in Mind and Judgment thanks be to god for all his Mercies Calling to Mind the uncertainty of this Life and that all flesh Must yield to Earth when it pleases god to Call. Therefore I do Make Constitute ordain and declare this to be my Last will and Testament in Manner and form as follows -- viz after all my Lawfull Debts and funeral Charges is paid and Discharged out of my Estate

I do will and bequeath to my beloved wife Elizabeth all the household goods and furniture and other things that shee Brought with her and Likewise I do will a Certain Bond of one Hundred and Thirty seven pounds Sixteen Shillings that is against John Keith and one Hundred pounds more out of my Real Estate which Shee is not to Receive till Seven years after my decease and Likewise it is my will and pleasure that my wife is to Live in my Mantion House and to have full privilige as much as Shee had in my Lifetime and to have a good horse to Ride to Meeting or anywhere else when Shee sees fit to go abroad So long as Shee Remains my widow and Likewise Shee is to have the care of my two youngest Children in bringing them up till they come to the age of Maturity and Likewise it is my will that shee and my two young children is to be at the __?__ supported out of my estate and __?__ __?__ to be taught to read write and cipher and if it should suit my wife and my three sons for her to go and Live in the House where John Keith now Lives that is to Say Thomas James and Moses they are to put it in good Repair so as Shee Can Live Comfortably and to be Subported in the Same Manner and further it is my will that the yearly Interest of the above Mentioned Bond that is against John Keith is to Come into the Hands of my three sons Thomas James and Moses to help to pay debts and Charges for seven years after my decease it is to Come into the Hands of my wife both princable & Interest.

I do will and bequeath to my Son John five Shillings.
I do will and bequeath to my daughter Elizabeth Armstrong twenty pounds to be paid to Her Heirs and Assigns Seven years after my decease.
I do will and bequeath to my daughter Mary Britton twenty five pounds to be paid to Her(?) or(?) Her(?) Heirs seven years after my decease.
I do will and bequeath to my Son Thomas James and Moses my Real and personal(?) estate and to their Heirs and assigns for ever in Manner as follows that is to say Moses to have forty pounds and a Certain colt from the Gray mare and my Knew(?) Buckles more than Thomas and James and it is my will that Thomas is to have my watch(?) and James my Black(?) Buckle(?) they three paying all debts and Costs and Legacies that is to Say Thomas James and Moses; after the due consideration it is my will that the above one Hundred pound is to be in the Hands of my three sons Thomas James and Moses till my two youngest Children Jean and Robert Comes to age and then to be paid to his or her heirs.
I do will and bequeath to my daughter Jean forty pounds in Money and a horse and saddle worth twenty pounds, and a good cow and a case of drawers, and further Bed and Bedding a Looking Glass worth thirty Shillings and a walnut Table to be paid when she comes to age.
I do will and bequeath to my youngest Son Robert forty pounds to be paid when he comes to age.
I do will and bequeath to my Grandson Robert Armstrong five pounds to be paid when he comes to the age of Twenty one year.
I do will and bequeath to my Grandson John Gibson five pounds to be paid to him when he comes to the age of Twenty one years.
And further it is my will that if my Son Moses should Die before he comes to the age of twenty one his portion is to Come to my Son Thomas and James all excepting(?) twenty pounds to my daughter Elizabeth and forty(?) pounds to my daughter Mary Britton and further it is my will that if any of my youngest children Jean and Robert Should die before he comes to age, the surviving one is to Receive the others portion when they come to age.

And if any differences or disputes Should happen or arise between my wife and any of my Legatees or between any of my Children I do __?__ after named executors that is Joseph Bretton and William McCalla __?__ them acording to Equity and Justis to the best of their ability and if they can not agree they are to call on any __?__ and their Judgement is to be final.

I do hereby name and appoint my friends Nathaniel Britton and William McCalla and my Son Thomas to be my executors of this my Last will and Testament and See that it be duly executed. In witness whereof I have herewith Set my Hand Seal the twenty fourth day of April in the year of our Lord one thousand Seven Hundred and Eighty Eight 1788.
Robert Gibson

Signed Sealed Published and Declared to the above said Robert Gibson to be his Last Will and Testament in the presents by us who have hereunto subscribed our Names as Witness in the presents of the Testator
Nathanial Brittin
John Sees

Bucks Co.
The twenty-second day of August, A. D. 1788, appeared Nathaniel Britain and John Sees, the Subscribing Witnesses to the Instrument contained on one side of this Sheet of Paper who, on their solemn Affirmations, did repectively declare and say, that they were Personally present, and saw and heard Robert Gibson, deceased, sign, seal, publish and declare the same __?__ for his Last Will and Testament, and that, at the time of his so doing, he was of sound Mind, Memory and Understanding, to the best of their Knowledge and Belief. Before me
James Hanna, Register

(See notes after the settlement document below.)

1788 inventory of Robert Gibson's estate -- click on picture for larger view
Inventory of the Personal Estate of Robert Gibson, dec. Filed August 22, 1788

Inventory of the goods and Chattle Late of Robert Gibson in Bucks County Plumstead township

Deceased . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

L

s

D

Purse & apperil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

6

0

0

One watch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

5

0

0

One Note . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

56

0

0

Interest Due . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

8

6

4

Ditto not yet Due . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

57

17

4

Book Debts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3

13

6

Riding Horse & Saddle . . . . . . . . . .

10

0

0

one Clock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

10

0

0

one Cubbard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1

17

6

one Bed and Bedding . . . . . . . . . . .

2

5

0

one Small Ditto . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1

2

6

one Ditto . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1

19

0

one Ditto . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3

0

0

One Rug & 3 Blankets . . . . . . . . . . .

1

15

0

2 pieces of Cloth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

7

10

0

1 Table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

10

0

2 Chests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

7

6

2 Wheels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

12

0

12 lb of Wool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1

4

0

Lumber in Garret . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2

6

1 hetchel (hatchet?) . . . . . . . . . . . . .

5

0

yarn for Coverlid? . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

11

3

30 Bushels Wheat . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

9

0

0

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Page 1 total

188

13

5

Rie . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

0

7

6

One pair of Saddle Bags . . . . . . . . .

19

9

One Razer & hone . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2

One Table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3

Woolen yarn . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

18

9

Ditto . . Ditto . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1

2

One pair Shetlands . . . . . . . . . . . . .

7

6

One Looking Glass . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2

1 pair Cards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3

9

Pewter & Queens ware . . . . . . . . . .

15

Hand Irons & Trainble . . . . . . . . . . .

15

Kitching furniture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1

0

Chairs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

10

1 Stand . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2

6

Books . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

12

6

1 Plow & Harrow . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1

10

Old Irons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3

9

Mall & wedges Axes and Hows . . .

17

6

1 Grindstone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3

9

Wlnut Boards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2

15

2 Sithes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

15

6 Hogs heads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1

2

6

1 Iron Kettle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1

0

1 Apple Mill & press . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1

10

Hay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

18

0

Oats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

15

0

Rie . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

5

12

Wheat in Stack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

7

10

Flax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3

0

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Page 2 total

67

2

8

1 Cutting Box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

7

6

1 Waggon and Gears . . . . . . . . . . . .

9

0

Rake & fork . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

5

0

Indian Corn in the Ground . . . . . . . . .

12

10

0

1 Riding Chair . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2

3

0

1 Greymare and Colt . . . . . . . . . . . . .

20

0

1 Roand Mare . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

6

0

0

White faced Cow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4

0

0

Ditto . . Ditto . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4

0

0

Ditto Black sided? cow? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4

0

0

Ditto sided? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3

19

0

Young Cow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3

19

0

1 Red Cow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4

0

0

Appraised to the Widdow

One Bed and Bedding . . . . . . . . . . . .

5

0

0

4 Sheets & 1 Bedquilt . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2

0

0

2 Coverlets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1

10

0

1 Case of Drawers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

5

0

0

Handirons & Tongs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

0

15

0

1 Set of china? & teaspoons . . . . . . . . .

1

12

0

Pewter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1

2

6

1 Looking Glass . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

15

0

1 Case of Drawers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2

0

0

1 Set of Curtains . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3

0

0

4 Blankets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

`

10

0

1 Bull . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2

15

0

3 Yearling Heffers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

6

0

0

3 Spring Calfs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3

0

0

28 Sheep . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

10

10

0

8 Hogs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

9

0

0

1 pair of Hobbles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2

6

1 Negroe Girl . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3

0

0

Money Due for Rent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

7

0

0

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Total

119

5

0

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Amount of Page 1

188

13

5

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2

67

2

6

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Appraised to the Widow

167

13

0

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Total

542

13

11

1 Table Cloth and 2 Napkins . . . . . . . .

15

0

1 Sidesaddle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1

10

0

1 Bond Due from John Keith** . . . . . . .

137

16

0

1 Big wheel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

10

0

1 Little Ditto & Reel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

10

0

1 Brass Kettle & teakettle . . . . . . . . . .

1

2

6

2 Iron Potts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

10

0

6 Chairs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

15

0

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Total

167

13

0

August 22, 1788, Appraised by Mr William Hart, Moses Kelly.
Bucks.
William Hart and Moses Kelly On Oath Doth Declare the Above Inventory is Just and true of all the Goods and Chattle that came to our knowledge. Sworn Before me August 22, 1788. Thos Dyer.

(See notes after the settlement document below.)

1794 settlement of Robert Gibson's estate -- click on picture for larger view
Settlement of the Estate of Robert Gibson, Deceased -- Filed October 7, 1794

Thomas Gibson, Joseph Britton & William McCalla, Executors to the Estate of Robert Gibson, deceased in Acct. with said Estate

The Accountant's Charge themselves with
the Amount of the Appraisement and for Inventory
filed in the Register Office 22d August 1788

L
542

s
13

D
11

Do to the Interest on John Keith's Bond of 7 years

56

17

5 3/4

By Cash F James Hanna Esq for Latters Testamentory

1

9

1. By .....do..... Jacob Wisman .....do..... Receipt

14

8

2. By .....do..... F Jacob Rodrocky? .....do..... .....do.....

9

6

3. By .....do..... William McCall for Tho Morriston .....do..... .....do.....

14

10

4. By .....do..... Michael Swartz .....do..... .....do.....

14

8

5. By .....do..... Fiscer? & Britton .....do..... .....do.....

1

13

9

6. By .....do..... Samuel Britton .....do..... .....do.....

7

6

7. By .....do..... John Armstrong .....do..... .....do.....

2

15

0

8. By .....do..... Nathaniel Britton .....do..... .....do.....

7

6

9. By .....do..... Jacob Wismer Weaver .....do..... .....do.....

1

10

10. By .....do..... a debt due Britton McCalla K? .....do..... .....do.....

1

7

11

11. By .....do..... F Price & britton .....do..... .....do.....

1

14

62

12. By .....do.....Daniel Carlisle .....do..... .....do.....

9

2

13. By .....do.....F Amith Price .....do..... .....do.....

1

5

102

14. By .....do.....F John Moyer .....do..... .....do.....

6

15. By .....do.....F Jacob Nonemaker Wtwo .....do.....

1

5

4

16. By .....do.....F Robert Smith Ltr two .....do.....

3

13

5

17. By .....do.....F John Moyer .....do..... .....do.....

4

$

18. By .....do..... F Jonathan Childs .....do..... .....do.....

9

19. By .....do..... L Edgar? Fenton .....do..... .....do.....

4

20. By .....do..... Francis Goods .....do..... .....do.....

2

2

6

21. By .....do..... Hugh Meredith MD .....do..... .....do.....

14

2

9

22. By .....do..... Phillip Hinkle .....do..... .....do.....

8

23. By .....do..... Bernard Kepler .....do..... .....do.....

17

7

24. By .....do..... John Keith .....do..... .....do.....

13

3/4

25. By .....do..... Rev. James Green .....do..... .....do.....

3

26. By .....do..... L Jonathan Combs .....do..... .....do.....

1

13

3

27. By .....do..... L Henry Eckol .....do..... .....do.....

1

4

0

28. By .....do..... L John Moyer .....do..... .....do.....

5

10

29. By .....do..... L David Cummins .....do..... .....do.....

10

4

30. By .....do..... L Peter Costner .....do..... .....do.....

15

By .....do..... Donaldson & Cox as for receipts on bonds

107

15

8

By sundry article bequeaths to the widow and received by her

167

13

By Commisions Allowed for Executing the above Trust

22

15

2 3/5

By Cash Ld for Coppy of the Inventory

7

6

By Cash Ld James Hanna Register for the __?__
to the Audits and Continuance

10

6

By __?__ __?__ __?__ __?__

1

10

9

By Manor? Expenses

10

By Register's Charge for approving this Account

0

16

Balance in the Exceutors Hands

364

2

3 2/4?

600

11

6 3/4

Bucks so? This Account examined & approved
October 7 1794
Sam Binges?
Benny Wynkoop, Matthia Hartebridge }Judges

In Obedience to your Order of the 5th of July last & By Continuance Made returnable the 7th of this Instant we the Subscribers Auditors therein appointed to settle the Accounts of Thomas Gibson, Joseph Britton & William McCalla, Exrs of Robert Gibson, deceased. Having proved to __?__ __?__ __?__ __?__ and find them as above stated.
Robert Smith, Alexr Hughes, Jos Thomas
October 4th 1794 James Hanna Register

--------------------
Notes:
---**John Keith (~1753-4/20/1826) is the Widow Elizabeth Gibson's stepson by her second marriage (Robert was her third husband). Elizabeth Wilson was the widow Keith, and John was her late husband William's Keith's son from his first marriage to Margaret Stockton (both born in N. Ireland -- Margaret died 5/1/1772 age ~55, and William died 4/16/1781 age 67). The bonds mentioned in this will for John Keith were likely bequests to the widow Elizabeth Keith in William's estate, and probably were for the family estate (the property remained in the Keith family for 133 years, being inherited by William's son John, who devised it to his sister Margaret's grandson, John Slack Keith). It is uncertain why the time lapse of seven years was specified -- perhaps it had to do with the original timing of the bond upon William Keith's demise. This was the home that General George Washington used just prior to the Crossing of the Delaware and Battle of Trenton.

The Keith mansion, which we first visited, has undergone no material change, except for the tooth of time. Then, as now, the main building was a two-story, pointed stone house, 24 by 28 feet, built by William Keith in 1763. The pine door, in two folds, set in a solid oaken frame, was garnished with a wooden lock, 14 by 8 inches, the same which locked out intruders when Washington occupied the house. The interior, finished in yellow pine, remains unchanged, and one room has never been disfigured by the painter's brush. Washington probably occupied the main front room downstairs for an office, and the one over it for his chamber. How often he ascended and descended the stairway, between the two rooms, with a heavy heart, especially while making ready for Trenton! The same roof, now covered with tin, is on the house. At that time the frontyard was enclosed by a stone wall. The property, containing 240 acres, and purchased by William Keith, of the London Company, nearly a century and a half ago, has never been out of the family. The situation, on the south side of Jericho mountain, is retired, and pleasantly exposed to the southern sun (W.W.H. Davis in his article, "Washington on the West Bank of the Delaware" in The Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography Vol. 4, No. 2, 1880, p.144-145).

---Note that son John Gibson was severely disinherited in this will; his share was a virtual pittance, smaller than that of even the grandchildren. This evidently has to do with the fact that Robert Gibson Sr submitted a petition for a commission of bankruptcy on March 17, 1787 against John who was indebted to Robert for 200 and who had become bankrupt; this was 10 days after Robert Gibson Jr's death. John is not mentioned as one of the three sons living in the house, and is not involved in the decision-making.
---Since the will provides for contingencies if Moses dies in the near future, special wording not mentioned for the other children, it could mean that Moses was sickly; however, it is known that Moses was under age 21 in the will, and it may just be a normal provision in the case of teenagers in a will. In fact, records for Moses are not found after 1796, and he appears to have died by 1816, apparently unmarried and without issue.
---Stepson Samuel Keith (b.~1779) is not mentioned in Robert's will, probably having been well provided for by William Keith in 1781.
---There was a third Robert Gibson, another Robert Gibson Jr, who lived in Bucks prior to his death in 1787, and who served with Robert Gibson Sr in the Militia in Bucks County in 1775-1780. The child Robert Jr mentioned in the will above, was a minor in 1787, and clearly to serve in the militia the third Robert Gibson was born prior to 1759 (age 16 in 1775). It is important to note that at this time, the suffix Jr was not necessarily indicative of a father-son relationship; Jr was used to indicate a younger person, related or not. But, there was only one Gibson family in Bucks in the 1750s, and it is thought that Robert Gibson Sr was likely to have named his first-born son after himself. This is also insinuated by the fact that this Robert Gibson Jr was apparently married to Mary Britton (the marriage mentioned in Dyer's diary on 7/27/1775) who is thought to have been a sister of Jesse Britton who married Anna Gibson -- Jesse was on the posse that hunted down Moses Doan and was also the executor of this Robert Gibson's will. Jesse was born in 1759, which indicates that Robert was also born in the 1750s. The fact that this Robert is not mentioned, indicates that he died single (Dyer's diary mentioned that Robert Gibson's wife was buried on 8/22/1777), and apparently they had no surviving children. Note that the Robert Gibson Jr in the will was born after the other Robert Gibson Jr died, and naming another child by the same name was not uncommon. However, it is also possible that this Robert Gibson Jr was some other relative, such as a nephew.
---Thus, Robert's children were: 1. (maybe) Robert Gibson (~1750s-1778)(married Mary Britton in 1775, no issue); 2. John Gibson (~1750-)(assume never married); 3. Elizabeth Gibson (~1752-)(married Samuel Armstrong in 1773, son Robert Armstrong born prior to 1788); 4. Mary Gibson (1750s-)(married Unknown Britton); 5. Thomas Gibson (1750s/60s-); 6. James Gibson (1760s-); 7. Moses Gibson (~1768-); 8. (stepson) Samuel Keith (~1781-); 9. Jean Gibson (1780s-); and 10. Robert Gibson (1780s-). One more grandson, John Gibson, son of probably Thomas but maybe James, was also born prior to 1788. Since Elizabeth married in 1773, 15 years prior to the writing of this will, yet only one child (a namesake for her father) is named in the will, it is assumed Robert did have other grandchildren alive in 1788 not mentioned in the will; it is uncertain why just grandson John Gibson was singled out, but perhaps he was the only Gibson grandchild; it is assumed Mary Gibson Britton did not have a son named Robert Britton alive in 1788. Of course there may have been more children who died young prior to the will as well. For more details, see Robert's children.
---I (DLH 2008) question whether executor Joseph Britton would have been made an arbiter in case of dissention between the Legatees, if he were a parent/spouse of one of the Legatees -- in other words, would Joseph have been named as an arbiter if he or his son had married Mary Gibson. However, it should be pointed out that genealogists who only looked at an abstract (summary of people and relationships) of the will, would not have seen this arbiter position, and logically assumed that Mary Gibson married Joseph Gibson, and so state in print; but furthermore, these genealogists are "off a generation" thinking that the Joseph she married was born in the 1730s, whereas clearly Mary was of the next generation. There were many Britton males born in the 1750s, eligible as Mary's husband -- see Britton tree. I (DLH 2008) think it more likely that Mary is a daughter of Nathaniel Britton (b.~1724), who is "just an executor" than Joseph, due to the arbitration position.
---This inventory is large for the day; Robert Gibson was clearly well-to-do in the community. The extent and variety of debts owed to him in the community confirm that Robert's occupation was not solely farming. A Robert Gibson of Cumberland, who is assumed to be one and the same (since daughter Elizabeth married Samuel Armstrong in Cumberland), was specified as a "joyner" on a 1758 land deed, which is a woodworker. The walnut boards in the inventory support that the Bucks Robert Gibson did work with wood, perhaps crafting the walnut table he bequeaths to his daugther Jean. A Plumstead Township Property & Tax Records in 1779 listed Robert Gibson as a tavern owner. I (DLH 2008) question why there would be bills be to partnerships (e.g., Price & Britton) and why the largest bill be to a doctor (Hugh Meredith MD) if these were solely tavern bills. Perhaps Robert had a tavern and worked wood, in addition to farming his land, and perhaps he hired local teens to work his land (such as Aaron Doan, whom he mentions in a 9/13/1783 Proclamation as "having laboured for me some time").
---A Yeoman is "a person qualified by possessing free land of 40/- annual [feudal] value, and who can serve on juries and vote for a Knight of the Shire. He is sometimes described as a small landowner, a farmer of the middle classes." (source: Concise Oxford Dictionary). Sir Anthony Richard Wagner, Garter Principal King of Arms, wrote that "a Yeoman would not normally have less than 100 acres" (40 hectares) and in social status is one step down from the Gentry, but above, say, a husbandman. (English Genealogy, Oxford, 1960, pps: 125-130).
---Looking Glass is a mirror. Some time during the early Renaissance (14th-17th centuries), European manufacturers perfected a superior method of coating glass with a tin-mercury amalgam. The exact date and location of the discovery is unknown, but in the 16th century, Venice, a city famed for its glass-making expertise, became a centre of mirror production using this new technique, and glass mirrors from this period were extremely expensive luxuries. The invention of the silvered-glass mirror common today is credited to German chemist Justus von Liebig in 1835. (Source: Wikipedia)
---(?) indicates that the transcribed word was a "best guess" of the handwriting, but is uncertain. __?__ indicates that a word(s) is not transcribed due to illegibility or poor handwriting of the original.
---The use of the word "Meeting" is assumed to be based on the Quaker heritage of having monthly meetings, and while not confirming a current Quaker heritage (Robert Gibson was buried at the cemetery of Presbyterian Church of Deep Run), suggests that his heritage could have been Quaker. Note that also at this cemetery are buried a second Robert Gibson (death date 9/21/1816, age 49 years) and a G. Gibson (1815).